When you grow fava beans at home, you have a wealth of options. Some types are super cold-hardy, while others are well-adapted to short growing seasons. Some excel when used as a cover crop – and all of them are fabulous in the kitchen. Keep reading to discover 7 of the best types of favas you can grow in the garden.
Fava beans are a superb addition to the home garden, and they can be grown in spring or winter as nitrogen fixers or as a cool-weather crop. Also called broad beans, these legumes make excellent companion plants and bear tasty, meaty beans with endless uses. Keep reading to learn more about growing fava beans.
When growing beans at home, there are different types to try suited to almost every garden and palate. Some are perfect as cool-weather crops, while others hold up nicely to drought. Whether for fresh eating or dry storage, you have a wealth of options. Keep reading to learn about 13 different types of edible beans.
Who needs a companion planting chart when you have a book that explains the science behind successful plant partnerships? Jessica Walliser’s Plant Partners does just that. Packed with gorgeous photos of real life combinations, this book will guide you in growing a diverse and resilient garden. Read our review now.
Marigolds make superb companion plants – and can be paired in different ways depending on your garden needs and landscaping style. But you’ll want to make sure to choose plant partners that have similar growing requirements. Keep reading to discover a selection of 17 excellent marigold companions that fit the bill.
Cardinal flower is a superstar wildflower. With its eye-catching scarlet blooms, it attracts hummingbirds and butterflies to the landscape. What’s more, this stunning native plant is very low maintenance when offered the right conditions. Learn more about growing cardinal flower in the landscape in this guide. Read more.
Want to use eggshells in your garden? Learn the best techniques for breaking them down in your compost and using them as a soil amendment. And find out the truth about whether eggshells really repel garden pests. To learn more about turning eggshells into garden amendments instead of landfill waste, read more now.
Watermelons are a delightful way to celebrate the summer months, so why not grow your own? Sometimes thought of as an intimidating fruit to grow, they are well worth the effort for their sensational sweet bounty. Learn how to plant and grow your own fresh harvest of watermelons with this guide. Read more now.
There are so many different marigolds to choose from for your veggie garden or flower beds. It can be hard to know which to pick when they are all so gorgeous, but learning about features such as bloom type, color, and size can help inform your choice. Keep reading to learn about 31 of the best types of marigolds.
Cosmos flowers are gorgeous ornamentals that add beauty to the landscape while also attracting pollinators. With colorful blooms and graceful foliage, these summer annuals brighten up both flower beds and veggie gardens, and will thrive in less than ideal conditions. Keep reading to learn more about growing cosmos.
Propagating spiderettes, the little babies that grow on spider plants, is an easy way to grow new plants. Whether rooting them in water, soil, or through layering, these plantlets make a fun indoor gardening project. Keep reading to learn more about the three different methods you can use to propagate spiderettes.
Pinstripe plant is a charming and elegant foliage houseplant with striped leaves that can blend with almost any household decor. This prayer plant lifts its leaves every night and lowers them again in the morning. Learn more about how to grow and care for pinstripe plants in this guide. Read more now.
Tradescantias are simple houseplants to propagate. Also known as spiderworts or inch plants, they root easily and can be started in soil, water, or through layering. Propagating these plants makes for a fun indoor gardening project – even for beginners. Keep reading to learn three ways to propagate spiderwort.
Rattlesnake calathea is a prayer plant with attractively patterned leaves that are raised at night and lowered again every morning. This houseplant will reward you with gorgeous green and purple foliage if you provide it with the care it requires. Keep reading to learn how to grow and care for rattlesnake plant.
Want to grow tomatoes from seed? It’s easy to start these delicious summer vegetables from the comfort of home, and then transplant them to your garden. We explain when to start and what you’ll need, with step by step instructions. Learn how to start your own seeds and harvest a bumper crop of juicy ripe tomatoes now.
Sweetheart hoya, also known as wax hearts, is a darling of a houseplant with its big, succulent, heart-shaped leaves. This vining plant produces fragrant flowers, is nontoxic, and can happily live as a plant companion for many years inside the home. Keep reading to learn how to grow and care for this heart-leafed hoya.
Parlor palms are easy-care tropical foliage houseplants that you can grow from seed. While it isn’t difficult, your success with this propagation project will be more likely if you follow the correct steps. In this guide, you’ll learn how to propagate parlor palms from seed in 5 easy steps. Read more now.
With their lush green fronds, parlor palms are wonderful foliage houseplants. They are also easy to care for, making them a great choice for beginners. And what’s more, they’re nontoxic, and safe for homes with pets or kids. Keep reading to learn everything you need to know to grow these verdant palm trees indoors.
Norfolk pines are beautiful, easy-care houseplants that can serve double duty as living Christmas trees. But after the holidays are over, you might wonder whether you need to repot this lovely conifer – or not. To learn when, how, and why to repot your Norfolk Island pine tree, keep reading. We share all the details.
When your home is full of lovely houseplants, why not choose an attractive watering can too? This tool doesn’t have to be an eyesore, it can add to your prized, chic decor. But looks aren’t everything – it has to do the job well too. Keep reading to discover 9 of the best watering cans for houseplant care.
Stromanthe ‘Triostar’ is a shining star of a houseplant, with its luscious pinks and delicate patterns. This prayer plant’s colorful foliage will grab your attention, rewarding you with a gorgeous display if you provide it with the right care. Keep reading to learn how to grow and care for a ‘Triostar’ prayer plant.
Norfolk Island pine trees are in the spotlight during the Christmas holiday season, but they make easy-care houseplants all year long. And if you want more of these conifers, they aren’t hard to propagate either. There are a few different methods you can use to propagate these trees – keep reading to learn more.
Norfolk Island pines make festive houseplants, and they will brighten your home long after the holidays have passed. But it’s important to develop a good watering routine as soon as you bring your tree home. Learn about Norfolk Island pine water requirements and how to keep them healthy all year long. Read more now.
Hoyas provide beautiful foliage in a dizzying array of shapes, colors, and textures. Whether you want just one plant or you’re ready to start or expand a collection, narrow your choices by learning about the many cultivars and species available. Discover 29 of the most fabulous types of hoyas for your home now.
Once hoyas start to catch your eye, these houseplants are hard to forget. With their long, trailing vines and fragrant, showy flowers, hoyas make gorgeous, easy-care indoor plants. Ready to fall down the hoya rabbit hole? Keep reading to find out all you need to know about growing these lovely, vining plants.
Calathea zebrina is a tropical prayer plant that’s grown for its striking striped foliage. It may have a reputation as a slightly fussy houseplant, but it’s easy to keep happy and beautiful when you know what it needs. You’ll find all the tips and tricks to growing the lovely calathea zebrina in this guide. Read more.
Coffee makes an outstanding hot drink, but what about using the spent grounds in the garden? These dregs are touted as a great fertilizer, mulch, and compost ingredient, but what does the science say? To find out if your notions about gardening with coffee grounds are on target – or a bit off center – keep reading now.
You may have already learned many great companion plant combinations, but do you understand the science behind why they work? From controlling pests to preventing soil erosion, companion planting is a key element among organic backyard gardening practices. Read our guide on the benefits of companion planting now.
Have you considered planting native wildflowers in your garden or yard? Using a palette of well-adapted plants, you can design and grow a local wildflower landscape to fit your gardening style and growing conditions. Find the best tips on how to plan and plant your own unique, native wildflower garden in this guide.
Native wildflowers offer a low-maintenance and waterwise way to bring beauty into your garden or yard. Some of these plants are widespread and very adaptable, making them excellent landscaping options for many gardeners. Keep reading to discover a selection of 15 of the best native wildflowers for the US and Canada.
Milkweed is vital to monarch butterflies, so as a caring gardener, you can grow it at home to help out these regal pollinators. But to make sure you’re truly helping and not hurting, it’s important to plant native milkweed species based on your location. Keep reading to find the best milkweeds to grow for your area.
Beans are an easy veggie to grow in the garden, even for beginners. However, it’s important to harvest this summer staple at the right size so you get the most bang for your buck, and the best texture. Read more now to learn our easy techniques for picking fresh snap beans, as well as the best time to harvest them.
Thinking of growing winter squash? Make sure to choose the best variety to match the length of your growing season and the size of your garden. And of course, you’ll want to pick a cultivar that will please your palate too! Keep reading to discover 11 of the best winter squash cultivars and find your new favorite.
Broccoli rabe is a cool season veggie that will spice up your spring or fall harvest with its compelling flavor profile. It’s easy to sow directly from seed and is a fast grower, so when planning a diverse assortment of leafy greens for your homestead or garden, don’t forget tasty rapini. Keep reading to learn more.
Artichokes can become long-term perennial residents in your garden. Before you plant these thistles, make sure you pick the best variety for your climate and conditions. Whether you have a short growing season, very mild winters, or a compact garden, you have your choice among cultivars. Keep reading to learn more.
Artichoke plants can be grown in your garden or flower beds, offering a tasty and generous harvest as either annuals or perennials. Adaptable to various climates and growing seasons, these silvery architectural plants can also do double duty as ornamental features. Keep reading to learn more about growing artichokes.
Chinese lantern is a charming ornamental that will bring a touch of whimsy to your garden. The papery, red-orange husks of this perennial come into their full splendor in autumn, providing bright fall color, and can be used in bouquets or dried arrangements. Keep reading to learn more about growing Chinese lantern.
Cosmos come in a stunning array of different varieties, but we’ve narrowed the field to 25 of the most gorgeous, colorful cultivars, many of them award winners. Discover the best and most beautiful double, semi-double, bicolored, and patterned cosmos varieties and choose your favorite for your yard and garden.
From surprisingly colored garden veggies to unexpectedly adorable berries, from teensy cucumbers to oversized beans, there are a wealth of unique edible plants you can grow in your backyard landscape. Ready to discover 17 unusual – and delicious – fruits and vegetables you can grow at home? Read more now.
If you think your garden isn’t suited to growing melons, or you just don’t find melons to be very exciting, it’s time to consider some new varieties. Discover a selection of cultivars to please every palate, and identify those that are perfectly suited to your growing conditions. Explore 33 top melon varieties now.
Orchids make striking houseplants with their novel good looks – and they’re really not that hard to keep happy. But when you bring one of these beauties into your home, you’ll want to make sure you provide it with the right light and water and give it the best care. To learn the basics of growing orchids, keep reading.
Spiderworts are gorgeous, low maintenance houseplants and they are available in some stunning varieties. With a variety of color combinations, and solid or variegated foliage, these tropical foliage plants liven up the indoor landscape. Discover 9 of the best spiderwort varieties and choose your favorites. Read more now.
Spiderwort (Tradescantia), aka wandering dude, is an ideal houseplant for beginner gardeners. The long, trailing foliage may be shades of green, purple, or variegated, depending on the cultivar. It grows quickly and looks gorgeous in hanging baskets. Learn how to grow spiderwort in this guide. Read more now.
Some cats love to nibble on spider plants, so you may be wondering whether it’s safe for them to chew on this grass-like houseplant. You may also wonder why your feline companion is so obsessed with this particular plant. Learn whether spider plants are toxic to cats and how to protect your plant from being chewed to a nub.
Prayer plants make enchanting houseplants with their gorgeous, patterned foliage. But sometimes their leaves can turn yellow, and the effect of those beautiful patterns is spoiled. There are many causes for yellow leaves in prayer plants. Learn about the most common problems and how to remedy them in this guide.
Prayer plants are gorgeous foliage houseplants that thrive in humid conditions. But sometimes brown blemishes tarnish their beautifully patterned leaves. When your prayer plant’s leaves turn brown, there is a reason. Learn about the top 7 reasons prayer plant leaves turn brown and what to do about them in this guide.
Prayer plants – including calatheas, marantas, stromanthes, and ctenanthes – are colorful ornamentals with fascinating leaf patterns. These houseplants can be a bit challenging to keep happy, but they are worth the extra effort. Ready to learn more about growing and caring for prayer plants indoors? Read more now.
Prayer plants are cherished for their unusual habit of lifting their leaves up at night, but also for their dazzling array of colors and patterns. From highly symmetrical markings to impressionistic marbling, discover 21 of the most gorgeous prayer plants you can keep in your home. To meet these stunners, keep reading.
The spider plant is loved for its bright foliage and masses of baby plantlets. It’s very resilient, will adapt to different growing conditions, and makes an excellent choice for beginners. And it’s a fast grower, helping you fill your home with greenery quickly. Keep reading to learn more about growing this houseplant.
When you bring home a Norfolk Island pine for the holidays, this is one Christmas tree you won’t have to take out to the curb when the festivities have ended. These evergreen conifers make excellent houseplants – however, there are a few tricks to preventing them from outgrowing your home. Keep reading to learn more.
Poinsettias are colorful tropical plants that add vibrant color to your holiday decor. But how cold-hardy are they? Whether you want to grow these winter-blooming plants indoors or out, you’ll need to know their cold limits. Learn more about poinsettia cold hardiness and in what areas you can grow them outdoors.
From red to pink to green to yellow, poinsettias are available in a wide array of vibrant hues and a dazzling choice of intriguing patterns. We’ve made a list of 35 of our favorite poinsettia varieties including those in traditional holiday colors, and others that offer unique alternatives. Read more now.
Want to grow your own poinsettias at home? Start with a live poinsettia plant and then follow seven steps for a brand new batch of beautiful, baby Christmas flowers. By taking cuttings from your established plant, you can grow others just like it. Learn how to propagate poinsettias from cuttings in this guide. Read more.
Spinach is a delicious cool weather crop and an excellent leafy green to include in your backyard garden. Whether your plans for your harvest include fresh spring salads or warming autumn stir fries, picking spinach in the right way can ensure a continual harvest. Ready to learn when and how to harvest spinach? Read more now.
Poinsettias have a reputation for being toxic, but are they really? These holiday plants are no longer considered poisonous, but they come with some serious safety concerns. Learn more about how to keep yourself, your kids, and your pets safe when these potentially irritating plants are in your home in this guide.
If you find yourself with a bumper crop of apples, you’ll likely want to put some of your harvest up for winter storage, either fresh or as preserves. The fresh fruits will keep their delicious flavors and perfect textures for months when stored in the best conditions. Learn how to store your apple harvest in this guide.
If you’re growing apples in your orchard, you’ll harvest the best quality fruit if you know how to judge the maturity of your crop. There are a number of factors that will help you estimate when your apples will be ripe for picking. Learn when and how to harvest your apples in this guide. Read more now.
When a bright poinsettia arrives in your home for the winter months, it’s time to celebrate! Not sure how to keep your plant happy? Whether you enjoy it just through the holidays, or you want to keep it as one of your cherished houseplants, your poinsettia needs proper care – and a little understanding. Read more now.
Lacinato kale is a healthy, delicious, and easy-to-grow crop that deserves a place in the backyard garden. Also known as Dinosaur or Tuscan kale, this plant has long blueish green leaves that are just as ornamental as they are tasty. Read more to learn how to grow this cruciferous leafy green vegetable.
Are you designing a landscape filled with drifts of naturalized daffodils? Make sure you choose the best cultivars for your planting to succeed. You’ll need vigorous bulbs, and varieties that you’ll be happy to see each spring for decades to come. To discover 15 of the best daffodils for naturalizing, keep reading.
Naturalized daffodils are great for hard-to-landscape areas and can last for decades, providing springtime color year after year. To make these drifts of flowers look like they were designed by nature’s hand rather than your own, you’ll want to plan your layout before you plant in the fall. Keep reading to learn more.
When life gives you leaves, why not make compost? Autumn’s falling leaves are perfect for making a well-balanced compost bin. Often treated as “waste,” dead leaves are a valuable natural resource that you can turn into black gold for your garden. To learn how to create compost and mulch with fall leaves, keep reading.
Are you looking for the best companion plants for your Swiss chard? Whether you want them to deter pests, add nutrients to the soil, or serve as a living mulch, some excellent options are available that may help your chard to thrive. Discover the top garden buddies for these tasty and colorful leafy greens now.
They’re colorful, juicy, and oh so tasty – we know an heirloom tomato when we see one. Heirloom tomatoes come in all shapes and sizes, have been grown in gardens for centuries, and often have charming histories attached to them. Want to know what makes these tomatoes worthy of handing down? To find out, keep reading.
Ready to discover 25 of the best watermelon varieties you can grow in your own garden? This refreshing summer staple comes in all sizes – from single serving fruit to hefty giants – in a range of colors and with seedless options too. Learn more about some of the sweetest, juiciest watermelons around. Read more.
Want to grow your own summer squash? These veggies are available in a delicious assortment of colors, shapes, patterns, and sizes. Whether you prefer your squash grilled, stuffed, spiralized, or sauteed, you have your pick for the garden. Discover 21 of the best summer squash varieties and choose your favorite now.
Ready to plant marigolds from seed for bright summer blooms? Planting marigolds from seed is easy, but you’ll want to know when you should start these annual flower seeds indoors – and when you can sow the seeds right into your garden soil. Learn more about how and when to plant marigolds from seed. Read more now.
Dill is an easy-going herb that can double as a spice. This cool-weather annual can brighten up nearly any homecooked meal, so having a fresh supply is a must in any kitchen garden. Whether you plant dill for its leaves, seeds, or as an ornamental, this aromatic plant is a delight in the garden and the kitchen.
Wondering what the difference is between determinate and indeterminate tomatoes – and what this means for your garden? From staking and pruning to harvesting, these two types of tomato plants grow differently – and understanding their differences will guide you to the best tomato harvests. To learn more, keep reading.
Ready for a tour of 35 of the best bush bean varieties? Whether you are growing in planters, worried about bean diseases, or dealing with unusually hot or cool summer conditions, there’s a variety for every garden. Discover the best classic snap, stringless, filet, wax, purple, and Romano bush varieties. Read more now.
Ready to learn some new gardening uses for your beloved borage? This blue-flowered herb can be grown as a cover crop to improve your garden in a number of ways, from soil amendment to pest protection, and it can even be used as a green manure. Discover how to grow borage as a cover crop in your garden. Read more now.
Why not try starting an herb garden this spring? There are many edible, medicinal, fragrant, and ornamental herbs to choose from. And there are gardening options for everyone, whether it’s in the landscape or in raised beds, window boxes, or pots. Learn how to start your own herb garden this spring. Read more now.
Are you ready to harvest baskets full of homegrown bush beans, from your own backyard? These summer vegetables are easy to grow and so delicious when they are picked fresh from the garden. Read on to learn everything you need to know about growing your own bush beans, from sowing seeds all the way to harvest time.
Saving seeds from your homegrown carrots now can ensure a bounty of garden vegetables in future seasons. If left to flower, each plant produces over a thousand seeds, so saving them is a no-brainer in terms of cheap food production. Learn how to harvest and store your own carrot seeds with this guide. Read more now.
Japanese eggplant is a delight on the plate and you can grow this veggie right in your own backyard. When choosing seeds, you’ll find an incredible selection, in shades that are dark black, bright purple, lavender, pink, and even green. Read on to discover 21 of the best Japanese and Asian eggplant varieties.
When’s the best time to harvest homegrown carrots, and what’s the best way to do it? Harvesting carrots involves following several important steps – and making sure to pick these vegetables at just the right moment, for the sweetest crop. To learn everything you need to know about harvesting carrots, read more now.
Some vegetable seeds should be sowed directly in the garden – while others are more successful when started indoors, and transplanted later. Find a list of which veggies are which, understand the reasons behind these guidelines – and learn about some exceptions you should know about, too. Read on to learn more now.
Lettuce is an easy to grow, nutritious addition to your vegetable patch. There are lots of cultivars available in a variety of sizes, shapes, colors, and textures. From the classic crunch of the crisphead to the delicate, tender oak leaf, there’s sure to be one to suit you. Discover 29 of our favorite lettuce varieties.
Are you forgetting one of the most important tools you can use to grow a productive and healthy garden? A gardening journal can help you record, design, plan, and improve your garden. To learn more about how journaling can help you all year, and discover 7 of the best gardening journals available today, keep reading.
Is there a difference between broccolini and broccoli rabe? Or are they the same? These two veggies look a lot alike and have similar names. But they are different – in their origins, how they grow in the garden, and how you’ll want to use them in the kitchen! To learn what distinguishes these two veggies, keep reading.
Curious how much space to leave between each of the kale plants in your garden? By spacing these leafy green vegetables just right, it will be easy to care for and harvest your crop throughout your growing season. To find out the best spacing recommendations for your kale varieties and harvesting plans, read more now.
Asparagus, the reigning edible perennial of the backyard vegetable garden, has both male and female plants. But how does this affect the way you grow and harvest these delicious spring veggies? Keep reading to learn more about the difference between male and female asparagus plants – and why it matters.
Looking for something unique that will really stand out in your veggie garden this year? These nine white eggplant varieties will glow as they grow. Usually less bitter than purple cultivars, white varieties come in different shapes and sizes. To learn more about these delicious white eggplant cultivars, keep reading.
Are your carrots forked, branching, twisted, or knobby? These garden oddities are amusing, but can make food prep more challenging. The reasons for carrot deformities can range from soil quality to pests, and can be prevented. To learn several methods to prevent deformed carrots and grow straight ones, read more now.
Are you curious about harvesting the leaves from your beet plants to use in the kitchen? Cooking up tasty plant-based dishes with this often overlooked source of fresh greens is a great way to reduce food waste and add another healthy vegetable to your diet. To learn how and when to harvest beet greens, read more now.
Choosing to grow kale in the home garden is an excellent choice. Who doesn’t want a fresh patch of healthy leafy greens to pick from, right in the backyard? But knowing how much sunshine per day this cruciferous vegetable requires? That’s another question. To find out how much sun to provide your kale, read more now.
A vegetable garden favorite, kale is a reliable producer of healthy leafy greens. But is this cruciferous vegetable an annual or a perennial? We’ll have to go back to the birds and the bees to fully understand kale’s life cycle. To find out when to expect flowering and seed heads from your kale plants, keep on reading.
Think it’s impossible to find a cold-hardy cherry tree that will survive in cold, northern climates? On the contrary – you can harvest delicious cherries, sweet or sour, so long as you pick the right variety. Discover the 9 best cold-tolerant cultivars that will produce your summer cherry bumper crop. To get the sweet lowdown, keep reading.
Ready to grow flavorful homegrown apricots in your chilly northern climate? If you plant the best cold-hardy varieties, you’ll be sure to harvest a bounty of sweet fruit. Discover the best cold tolerant apricot cultivars to ensure a bumper summer crop, and defy the dreaded late frost. Keep reading to learn more.
With its bright and colorful blossoms, Christmas cactus is a gorgeous houseplant to have around during the holidays. To make sure this succulent plant produces vivid flowers to brighten your holidays year after year, it will need the right conditions. Learn more about growing and caring for Christmas cactus.
Wintertime can be dreary. Why not brighten things up with colorful houseplants? Learn about 23 of our favorites to find the best options suited to your indoor conditions and decor. From fresh and tropical to old school, plants are available in your favorite colors that are sure to thrive in your home. Read more now.
Planting kale in your vegetable garden? You’ll want to know the best common companion plants for this garden veggie. If so, you have come to the right place. Learn which plants will attract beneficial insects, repel pests, provide ground cover, and act as nitrogen fixers for this garden staple. Read more now.
When it’s time to harvest your crops, have you ever wondered what to do with an overabundance of root vegetables? What if your homegrown carrots could be left in the soil for the winter? Leaving carrots in the ground is a great way to keep them fresh during the winter months – given the right conditions. Read more now.
Carrots may be the ultimate health food. The only way to make them healthier and more delicious is to grow them yourself! Add these beauties to the vegetable patch, and you can enjoy them in all the shades of the rainbow. And you’ll get the freshest root vegetables you’ve ever tasted. Keep reading to learn more.
Create a cozy, inviting autumn oasis in your own yard by choosing the right plants and design elements. For a fall garden that delights the senses and warms the spirit, make sure to plan your design with attention to color, texture, shape, and light. To learn more about creating your own fall garden design, read on.
Spice up your fall garden with seasonal decorations, ranging from the classic (pumpkins and straw bales) to the whimsical (lanterns and fairies). Whether elegant or rustic, bring hints of harvest season warmth to your outdoor landscape this autumn. Read on for ideas to complete your very own fall garden decor.
Carrots, and cabbage, and collards, oh my! Fall is here and it’s time to head back to the garden to plant your autumn vegetable crops. For a bountiful harvest from your fall veggie patch, there are a few tips and tricks you’ll need before you sow your seeds and transplant your seedlings. Ready to learn more? Read on!
Gardening is awesome in autumn, but do you know the best time to plant your favorite crops? Learn about important factors such as the first frost date, days to maturity, soil temperature, and more. This handy guide makes it easy for you to work out the ideal time to sow or transplant your fall garden plants. Read more.
Just because there’s a chill in the air doesn’t mean your gardening season has to be over. Autumn is the perfect time to plant berry bushes, trees, and canes for a generous crop of homegrown fruit next year. Read more to learn to plant a variety of berries this autumn for a luscious spring, summer, and fall harvest.