How to Plant and Grow Daikon: Add Some Zing to Your Garden

Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus

It has always seemed to me that daikon radish is one of the easiest fall crops to grow. Sometimes I’ve sown seeds and forgotten about them, only to return to large white roots.

These radishes require little upkeep and store well. During the dark of winter, I love munching on them to add some zing to an otherwise dreary day.

Daikon radish, still in the soil, with leaf tops in soft focus. Green and white text to the middle and bottom of the frame.

 

What Is Daikon?

Daikon is a specific type of radish characterized by its large root. It’s no surprise that its name comes from two Japanese words: dai, which means large, and kon, which means root.

Daikon radish lying on dry soil, with it's leaf tops attached. In the background, more tubers poking out of the soil, ready for harvesting, in bright sunshine.

It also has a longer date to maturity than other types of radish, which makes sense for its larger size.

Like all radishes, it is a member of the Brassicaceae family. Daikon also goes by other names including white radish, Chinese radish, and Japanese radish.

Cultivation and History

Although daikon is widely grown and consumed throughout East Asia, it is thought to have originated in the Mediterranean. However, these radishes soon made their way to countries including China, Japan, and Korea sometime during the third or fourth century.

Vertical image of daikon radishes with their green tops leaning up against an orange plastic basket on soil.

Since then, they have been a mainstay in certain Asian cuisines, appearing in dishes including stews, stir fries, and ferments.

Daikon is a winter radish, meaning it grows best when it is allowed to mature in colder weather. Therefore, it is typically planted in mid-summer to early fall, depending on your growing zone.

These radishes are often used as cover crops to loosen soil and reduce erosion. This has given them the name tillage radishes.

How to Sow

As with other radishes, these are best grown via direct seeding. The date when you should plant seeds depends on your growing zone. Daikon radishes can be grown in USDA Hardiness Zones 2-11.

Close up of fingers placing daikon seeds into a shallow hollow in the soil.

Aim to sow seeds around two months before your predicted first frost date. This will ensure plants mature in time for harvest.

No matter where you are located, sow one seed every inch in rows 12-18 inches apart. Seeds should be planted at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch.

How to Grow

As mentioned above, this crop is best grown via direct seeding. Before you plant the seeds, you want to make sure you prepare your soil.

Daikon radishes grow best in soil with a pH of 5.8-6.8. Although their roots can loosen compacted soil, they grow best where soil is already loose. If your soil is compacted, consider loosening it with a broadfork before planting.

Since you will be harvesting the roots, avoid applying excessive amounts of nitrogen to the soil. Too much nitrogen will grow large greens, but small roots.

Choose a full sun to partial shade location for best results.

Close up of two hands gently dividing seedlings in the soil.

Once you plant your seeds, make sure you keep the soil moist, and they will germinate within a few days. Within a week of germination, thin seedlings to 4-6 inches apart.

Plants will mature in 40-70 days, depending on the variety. Don’t fret if part of the root is visible above ground; this is normal.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

Water should be provided every few days if rain doesn’t fall. You are aiming for moist, but not wet, soil.

Growing Tips

  • Avoid applying excessive nitrogen, to ensure development of roots.
  • Thin seedlings so roots have space to size up.
  • Loosen soil so roots can grow large.

Cultivars to Select

Daikon come in three main types: oblong, tapered, and round.

The difference between these types is in their root shape. Some are rounded with nearly the same circumference from top to root, some have more of a narrow and tapered shape similar to a carrot, and others are nearly spherical.

Cultivars also vary in root color, with most being some combination of white and light green.

Japanese Minowase

This heirloom variety produces oblong roots that can grow up to two feet in length. The roots are all white, and can be stored for multiple weeks after harvest.

Three 'Japanese Minowase' daikon tubers on a wooden surface with leaf tops attached.

Japanese Minowase

Ready to eat in 45-60 days, the ‘Japanese Minowase’ cultivar is also known for being adaptable to sun or shade.

Find seeds at Eden Brothers.

Long

The ‘Long’ cultivar has white tapered roots with light green tops.

Close up of four 'Long' daikon tubers on a hessian sack on soil. In the background are two still waiting to be harvested.

‘Long’

This type can grow up to 14 inches in length. Expect about 60 days to maturity. It can be grown in the spring as well as in the fall.

Find seeds at Burpee.

Red

This variety has oblong roots that grow 5-8 inches long. The exterior of the roots is bright red while the interior ranges from white to pink.

Close up of 'Red' daikon tubers, with leaf tops trimmed, on a white background.

Red

‘Red’ is an heirloom cultivar that you can expect to be ready to harvest in as little as 30 days.

Find seeds at True Leaf Market.

Watermelon

An heirloom variety of daikon with a round bulb, this type is the star of the show when added to any salad or platter of crudités.

Close up of round 'Watermelon' daikon radish, harvested, with leaf tops trimmed.

‘Watermelon’

White or light green on the outside, slicing into these roots reveals bright pink flesh that is reminiscent of a watermelon.

These can be harvested when they reach golf ball size, or leave them in the ground longer for whopping grapefruit-sized roots. Expect 30-80 days to harvest.

Seeds are available from True Leaf Market.

White Icicle

Icicle radishes form white, narrow, tapered roots that reach about 5 inches in length at maturity. And this cultivar grows quickly – you can expect a harvest in just 27-35 days!

'White Icicle' daikon radishes harvested, with leaf tops attached, on a wooden surface.

White Icicle

With a mildly pungent flavor, Burpee rates this cultivar as “Best in Class.”

Get your seeds now, available from Burpee.

Managing Pests and Disease

Pests generally don’t bother these radishes too much, however, there are some that still pop up occasionally.

Insects

Different types of insects may go after the leaves as well as the roots. Luckily, they don’t usually cause too much damage.

Flea Beetle

Flea beetles are little bugs that go after the leaves of your plants. If you see small holes in your leaves, take a closer look. You will probably see the beetles themselves, only 1/16-1/4 inch in size.

Close up of two flea beetles on a leaf. The background is of the leaf in soft focus.

Read more about flea beetles and how to control them here.

Harlequin Bug

These bugs may look pretty, but they can really do some damage to your crops. They are orange and black with shield-shaped bodies, and they feed on leafy greens.

If you only see a few bugs on your plants, simply pick them off and place them in some soapy water.

Close up of a harlequin beetle on a branch, with soft focus vegetation in the background.

If these pests take over your crop and require more intense intervention, they can be treated with a spray of neem oil, pyrethin, or insecticidal soap.

Cabbage Maggot

If you pull up your daikon only to discover that they are ridden with tiny channels, the cabbage maggot is likely to blame. These pests are the juvenile form of small flies.

To prevent infestation by these insect pests, consider employing a cover cropping routine. Another method to keep pests at bay is by using floating row covers to exclude insects from your crops.

Read more about cabbage maggot control here.

Disease

All parts of the daikon plant are susceptible to disease, both above and belowground. Again, these issues won’t usually prove to be too much of a problem for your crop.

Septoria Leaf Spot

If you see yellow spots with gray centers on your radish leaves, they are probably infected with this fungus. The best treatment is to remove infected leaves and/or plants. This will stop the spread of the fungus.

Black Root Rot

This fungus goes after your plants’ roots, turning pieces black in color and distorted in shape. If it affects small seedlings, the plants may die. Unfortunately, this disease cannot be treated once it is spotted on your plants.

However, it can be prevented using cultural methods. Don’t over water your crops and make sure they are planted in soil with good drainage.

Another way to prevent this disease is by practicing crop rotation. Since this fungus affects multiple Brassica species, make sure you don’t grow brassicas repeatedly in the same area.

Harvesting

Daikon radishes can be harvested once they meet their date of maturity. Check your seed packets for recommendations.

Close up of daikon leaf tops growing in soil.

Keep in mind that although this type of radish has more of a capacity to grow large while maintaining quality than your traditional radish varieties, they can still become pithy and spongy if they are left to grow too big. Be sure to harvest before this happens.

If hit with hard frosts, the radishes will become spongy or die. However, the time to harvest can be extended by protecting plants with floating row covers.

Close up of the top of a daikon tuber in the soil, with bright sunshine filtering through the leaf tops.

Varieties with long and slender roots are fragile and susceptible to snapping. You can prevent them from breaking by loosening the soil with a pitchfork, broadfork, or shovel.

Once your soil is adequately loose, grab the leaves where they meet the tops of the roots and gently pull. Now’s the moment when you get to see just how big your daikon have grown!

Freshly harvested daikon radishes in a plastic container in water. Sunshine bathes the leaf tops.

Once the plants are pulled from the ground, cut off the leaves at their base. With the leaves removed, the roots can be stored for multiple weeks under the right conditions.

To increase the storage life of your radishes, avoid washing the roots or leaves until you are ready to use them.

Close up of harvested daikon tubers, with their leaf tops cut off.

Daikon is best stored in a cold, moist environment. Therefore, the best way to store your harvest is to place the roots in the refrigerator with a damp paper towel or cloth.

You can wrap or cover them in the towel; the important thing is that you are providing a humid environment.

Leaves can be stored in a zip-top plastic bag in the crisper drawer of your refrigerator for a few days.

Preserving

These radishes are often fermented on their own to be eaten as a type of pickle. They are also used as a component of Napa cabbage-based kimchi.

Fermenting is a simple process that only requires three main things: salt, water, and time. You can read more about fermented foods on our sister site, Foodal.

Recipes and Cooking Ideas

Daikon radish is a versatile crop in the kitchen. It can be eaten raw or cooked, and all parts of the plant can be consumed.

You do not need to peel this vegetable, though some people choose to do so. One simple way to eat daikon is to slice it up raw into discs that can be dipped in hummus or ranch dressing.

A dark grey surface with a whole daikon radish, sliced daikon in a jar in liquid. In the foreground a white bowl with slices and a thyme leaf on top. A fabric tea towel with stripes on the right.

Another great way to eat daikon is to dice it into ½-inch cubes and then saute them in oil with garlic and ginger for a few minutes. Remove from the heat and toss with rice noodles, soy sauce, sesame oil, and your favorite fresh diced hot pepper or hot pepper flakes.

Due to their rough texture, the leaves are best enjoyed cooked via methods including sauteing and steaming. They make a great addition to Thai-inspired coconut curries.

Close up of daikon spouts, clearly showing the furry roots coming out of the seeds.

Daikon sprouts can also be enjoyed in salads and sandwiches. See our article on sprouts and microgreens for more information to grow your own.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Grow Some Giant Radishes

Now that you know how to plant and grow these large radishes, it’s time to add them to your fall garden. You’ll be impressed with their size and how easy they are to grow.

Close up of daikon radishes, the tuber visible above the soil, and bright green tops in gentle sunshine.

To see how this crop can fit in with the rest of your fall plans, check out some other cool-weather-loving crops here!

And if you want to learn how to grow other fall crops, read these guides next:

Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Product photos courtesy of Eden Brothers, True Leaf Market, and Burpee. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock.

About Briana Yablonski

Briana Yablonski grew up in Eastern Pennsylvania and currently resides in Knoxville, Tennessee. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in plant sciences and has worked on farms in Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Tennessee. Now, she spends many hours planting seeds and moving compost at her market garden. When she’s not immersed in the world of gardening, Briana enjoys walking dogs at the local shelter and riding her bike. She believes that gardening fosters curiosity, continuous learning, and wonder.

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Karen
Karen (@guest_8820)
4 months ago

My daikon radish plants have flowered. Does this mean they have bolted and will taste bitter or not develop the root vegetable at all?

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
Admin
Noble Member
Reply to  Karen
4 months ago

Where are you gardening, Karen? Radishes can be difficult to grow in hot weather, and they’re likely to be woody (or spicy!) if they’ve bolted, with under-developed roots.

sansan
sansan (@guest_10430)
29 days ago

I am from Kern county, California. We harvested Daikon one month ago, but most of Daikon root are not that long. I will attach a pic, plz check it.
Now we sowed Daikon seeds again in the beginning of October, do you have any tips to harvest high quality Daikon radish, like soil, compost, fertilizer, and other tips? And what should we notice when growing Daikon radish?
Thanks a lot.

photo_2020-10-27_11-58-55.jpg
Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
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Noble Member
Reply to  sansan
29 days ago

Thanks for your message, sansan. Length at maturity can depend in part on the type that you’re growing, as well as the growing conditions, as you’ve suggested. I’d suspect if they were short they were picked too early, too dry/irrigated inadeauately, and/or they were grown in soil that was too compacted. Summer isn’t really the best time for radishes in most parts of CA but they’ll probably do better as a cool-weather fall crop. The soil should be loose and fertile before planting, but avoid amending with fertilizers that are high in nitrogen since this is a root vegetable. A… Read more »

sansan
sansan (@guest_10438)
Reply to  Allison Sidhu
29 days ago

Hi Allison, thanks for your answer. I thought we planted them so early last time, and because of watering too much, those Daikon radish suffered black rot disease, do you know how to water Daikon in their growth stage? Like when should I water more, but when should I water little? Also how to apply fertilizers and what kind of fertilizer? Looking forward to your reply, thanks.

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
Admin
Noble Member
Reply to  sansan
27 days ago

Watering can be tricky since daikon benefits from a lot of moisture, but they don’t like sitting in standing water either. Consistency is key here – you don’t want to allow your crop to dry out. Make sure the planting area drains well, use a rain gauge so you can monitor precipitation, and consider using a moisture meter to check the levels in the soil (or stick your finger or a wooden ruler a few inches down every couple of days to check). Applying mulch around your plants can help to retain moisture. I hope you’ve also taken precautions to… Read more »

sansan
sansan (@guest_10478)
Reply to  Allison Sidhu
26 days ago

Thanks for your help, Allison. I got a lot from what you shared.

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
Admin
Noble Member
Reply to  sansan
21 days ago

You’re welcome!