How to Grow and Care for Hardy Hibiscus Flowers

Hibiscus spp.

When you think of the majestic hibiscus flower, your mind may turn instinctively to the medium-sized shrubs with their showy display of large, bright flowers popular in Southern and tropical gardens.

There is another type of hibiscus that has been slowly gaining in popularity in more northern climates for over 100 years now, and breeders have been expanding selections continuously through that time.

The term “hardy hibiscus” generally refers to a few different species and their hybrids, in the rose mallow group within the Malvaceae family, that are closely related – to the extent that they can crossbreed.

A vertical close up picture of hardy hibiscus flowers, red with yellow stamen growing in the garden on a soft focus background. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.

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This has led to active breeding programs that have created hybrids in a wide variety of colors in both the flowers and leaves, and sizes ranging from two-foot beauties bursting with bright red, saucer-sized flowers to 10-foot-tall sub-shrubs.

In this article, we’ll delve into the details of how to grow these magnificent plants, with the power to add a touch of tropical sophistication to your garden.

A large shrub of hardy hibiscus growing in the garden with white and red flowers with blue sky in the background.

I’ll include some of the best cultivars to look out for, and some tricks to ramp up and prolong blooming as well.

What Is Hardy Hibiscus?

When I first discovered hardy hibiscus many years ago in a municipal park, I was amazed that such a glorious plant could grow in southern Ontario, Canada where I live.

A close up of a H. moscheutos shrub growing in the garden with pink and red flowers surrounded by dark foliage, on a soft focus background.

I’d seen hibiscuses in the tropics, but the flowers on hardy hibiscus rivaled even their size and brilliance!

The famed tropical cultivars mostly come from H. rosa-sinensis, incidentally, with other species, mostly from Asia and Africa, hybridized into the mix.

For the purposes of this article, we’ll be focusing on the North American species of Hibiscus that I fell in love with and have been growing for several years now.

These are part of the Muenchhusia section of the genus, also known as rose mallows.

The hardy hibiscus label is also sometimes bestowed upon another hardy species in the genus (and another one of my personal favorites), H. syriacuscommonly known as rose of Sharon.

The rose mallows are herbaceous perennial plants that completely die back to the ground each winter, while rose of Sharon is a small deciduous shrub.

A vertical picture of large red H. moscheutos flowers growing in the garden surrounded by other foliage.

Hardy hibiscus species include H. moscheutos (rose mallow), H. coccineus (scarlet rose mallow), H. dasycalyx (Neches River rose mallow), H. grandiflorus (swamp rose mallow), H. lasiocarpos (hairy or wooly rose mallow), and H. laevis (halberd-leaf rose mallow).

Many cultivars of hardy hibiscus sold at garden centers are labeled simply as “Hibiscus x” or perhaps Hibiscus x moscheutos, for example, with the true and complete genetic origins obscured.

One thing all varieties have in common, though, is their large, eye-popping flowers that can be up to 12 inches across (though usually they max out at 10 inches).

These aren’t just the largest perennial flowers in North America, they’re one of the largest flowers in any garden, anywhere!

A large pink rose mallow flower growing in the garden in bright sunshine on a soft focus background.

Depending on the genetic background of a given species, hybrid, or cultivar, flowers can be much smaller, however, and can range in color from bright red to pink-blushed white, blue, or purple, often with red or burgundy throats, and various colors of streaks to the flower edges.

Like all hibiscuses, hardy hibiscus flowers also have that prominent pollen-coated staminal column, giving them an extra dimension of interest.

Different varieties can grow anywhere from two to 10 feet tall and all share common growing requirements – I’ll go into more detail on this below, so keep reading!

They commonly begin flowering as early as June in warmer areas, while in cooler areas they may not begin blooming until August, and continue their display until first frost.

Cultivation and History

Hardy hibiscus flowers are hard not to notice in a garden, and they are especially impressive when grouped together in progressive patterns of complementary colors – white flowing into light purple, flowing into darker purple and shades of red, for example.

A vertical picture of yellow and red hardy hibiscus flowers surrounded by foliage, pictured in bright sunshine, growing in the garden.

The plants typically grow in USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5 to 9, though some species and varieties may be hardy down to Zone 4, or thrive in warmer temperatures up through Zone 11.

Many pollinators adore hardy hibiscus – I’ve seen more than one bumblebee within the flowers, cuddling up to the staminal column as if they were exuberantly and intimately greeting a long-lost lover.

A vertical picture of the large dinner-plate sized flowers of the hardy hibiscus plant pictured in the bright sunshine, growing in the garden on a soft focus background.

And if you like hummingbirds, hardy hibiscus also attracts these dashing little creatures to the garden.

The history of hardy hibiscus is a long and interesting one, as plant breeders have been working away on hybrids for over 100 years.

However, Gretchen Zwetzig, owner of one of the oldest breeding companies, Fleming Flower Fields, has written that breeding efforts really only began to take off in the 1950s.

A close up of white H. moscheutos flowers with deep scarlet centers, surrounded by foliage in bright sunshine on a soft focus background.

While early efforts were focused mostly on H. moscheutos and H. coccineus lineages, the ‘60s brought increased interbreeding with other species, according to Zwetzig.

The 1970s brought further innovation, when, for example, Robert Darby introduced varieties that are still popular to this day, including ‘Lord Baltimore’ and ‘Lady Baltimore.’

Since then, breeders have continued to release interesting cultivars, some of which we’ll go over below.


Hardy hibiscus is best propagated by seed, stem cuttings, or crown division.

From Seed

Growing from seed is an excellent way to grow a lot of plants at low cost. Just remember, if the seeds are from hybrid plants, it’s impossible to know what you’ll get.

This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, if you’re looking for variety.

A close up of a green seed of the H. moscheutos plant, pictured in light sunshine.
Hardy hibiscus seed pod.

Seeds should be started indoors three months before the last frost in Zone 6, or in colder areas.

In Zone 7 or warmer, you can start them 1-2 months before the last frost, or sow them directly in a prepared bed after the last frost date.

Whatever your circumstance, soak seeds overnight and plant 1/2 inch deep.

For planting in flats, keep them at around 50-60 percent humidity if possible, in full sun.

As you approach last frost, begin hardening them off by gradually exposing them to outdoor sun and wind when the weather is favorable, starting with 30 minutes the first day, and increasing an hour each day for 5 more days before transplanting.

If you want to take a shot at breeding your own crosses, take a look at this paper on hybridization, published in the Japanese Society of Breeding’s “Breeding Science” journal in 2016, to get some ideas on how to do it.

From Cuttings

The best time to take cuttings is in the spring or early summer, ideally before flowering.

A close up of the flower bud of a red H. moscheutos growing in the garden, surrounded by foliage on a soft focus background.

Here’s how:

  1. Prepare a pot of moistened medium consisting of 50 percent soilless potting mix and 50 percent perlite.
  2. Cut a piece of new growth (softwood) four to six inches in length.
  3. Remove buds from the lower half of the cutting, moisten the cut end, and dip it in softwood rooting hormone powder. To avoid getting the powder wet, pour out what you need before dipping.
  4. Poke a hole deep into the growing medium, about half the length of the cutting and wide enough to avoid rubbing the rooting powder off. Carefully insert the lower half of the cutting and tamp the planting medium around it.
  5. Place the in a warm area with consistent temperatures of at least 60°F, in a greenhouse with 50-60 percent humidity, or in a sunny window covered with a humidity cover or bag.
  6. Keep the cutting moist. Watering with 1-3 percent hydrogen peroxide every 2-3 waterings will reduce the chance of rotting.

If successful, leaves will start to develop in about two months.

Once you see roots beginning to creep out the bottom of the pot and the cutting is well-rooted, repot in a 10 or 12-inch container, and place it out in a greenhouse or sunny window for a season before transplanting outside.

From Crown Divisions

Crown divisions are done with mature, fully grown plants that have many stems and a healthy root system.

The best time for making divisions is in the spring or early fall, when soil is moist.

Unlike some perennials, hardy hibiscus planted from seed should be divided carefully without digging up the entire root system, since their taproots will be forever impaired if you do this.

A close up of the red flowers of the hardy hibiscus shrub, growing in the garden surrounded by green foliage, pictured in light sunshine on a soft focus background.

Plants grown from cuttings tend to develop shallower taproots, in my experience, but avoiding root disturbance is always a good idea with these plants nonetheless.

To carry out divisions:

  1. First, push any mulch away from the area you’re working in so you can reuse it.
  2. Start 12 inches back from the plant and dig about 2 feet under the root system, or as deep as you can get on one side of the plant to lift up a small section with a few stems.
  3. Try not to break the larger primary roots as you tease the roots away from the plant.
  4. Use a clean, sharp knife to cut a piece of the root mass away that is attached to the targeted stems, being careful not to disrupt the connection between root and stem.
  5. Trim any diseased or dead root mass away, and replant or pot and fertilize with transplant fertilizer. If replanting in a bed, prepare the site as described below. If using a pot, select one that’s a couple of inches larger than the root mass. Repot in a bigger container or trim roots back whenever plants become root-bound.

You can learn more about dividing perennials in our guide.

How to Grow Hardy Hibiscus Flowers

Now that you know how to propagate hardy hibiscuses, let’s go over how to keep them healthy and blooming brilliantly.

Site Selection and Preparation

Hardy hibiscus species are usually found in the wild near wetlands or rivers, which explains their love of moist, relatively rich soil.

A close up of the large pink flowers of the H. moscheutos shrub, surrounded by foliage, with a street scene in soft focus in the background.

Luckily, because of extensive breeding, most hybrids aren’t quite as water-dependent as wild plants.

In general, they prefer medium to wet, well-drained soil and do best in soils that aren’t overly heavy, while performing poorly in sandy, dry soils.

Sandy or poor soil should be amended with a couple of inches of compost worked in 8 inches deep before planting.

This isn’t the sort of plant you can just pop into the middle of your lawn and call it a day, in other words.

A close up of H. moscheutos shrub growing in the garden with bright red flowers, with white flowers in soft focus in the background.

If you’re in a cooler climate in Zones 4 to 6, you’ll see the best results if you choose a planting site near a south-facing wall or a slope that is protected from the prevailing winds.

Plant them in full sun to encourage maximum bloom – though in hot, sunny climates you should consider arranging them so they get a bit of shade, with a maximum of 6 hours of sun per day.

A close up of a bright red H. moscheutos flower in bright sunshine on a soft focus background.

If they get too much shade, however, they tend to develop long, leggy stems and may not flower well or at all.

Although these plants tolerate heat and humidity, the soil must be kept moist, and they prefer their roots to be protected with a good layer of mulch.

Plant Nutrition

Hardy hibiscus plants require nutrient-rich soil to produce their luscious blooms.

A close up of the white flowers with deep red eyes of the H. moscheutos plant, surrounded by green foliage in light sunshine.

I usually use a balanced slow-release organic fertilizer on my entire garden – 4-4-4 NPK, for example – twice per year, but my soil is fairly rich.

Sandier and less rich soils may require fertilizer up to four times per year, until you build up nutrient levels.

Make sure not to over-fertilize as this can cause toxicity and lead to imbalances.

Acquiring a home soil test kit or sending your soil off to a testing lab will give you an idea of how to balance nutrient levels with the right fertilizer.

A close up of a large pink rose mallow with a deep red eye, growing in the garden with foliage in soft focus in the background.

Generally, hardy hibiscus requires a lot of potassium, only a bit of phosphorus, and a moderate amount of nitrogen in most soils.

An NPK of 17-5-24, 9-3-13, or 10-4-12 may work to amend soil that is poor in all nutrients, for example.

If your soil is low on phosphorus, this will reduce flowering.

A close up of a large pink H. moscheutos flower surrounded by foliage growing in the garden in bright sunshine.

In this case, give your plants a good organic-based liquid fertilizer that’s high in phosphorus in the spring to encourage blooming.

Be careful not to overdo it, though – too much phosphorus will also reduce blooming, and can damage or even kill your plants.

Winter Care

In areas with wintertime temperatures below freezing, make sure plants have 3 to 4 inches of mulch to protect the roots over the winter.

Wood chips, straw, leaves, and so on may be used effectively.

Be patient in the spring, as hardy hibiscus is usually one of the last plants to come up, sending out its first new growth in May, or even June.

Although hardy hibiscus doesn’t need to be pruned, to encourage more flowers, trim off growing stem tips when plants are 8 inches tall, and optionally, again at 12 inches.

Growing Tips

  • Keep well-watered until established.
  • Mulch well, especially during the hottest and coldest times of year.
  • Apply phosphorus-rich fertilizer in spring, unless soil is already high in this nutrient.
  • Protect from cold winds in cooler climates.
  • Although tolerant of wet soils, plant in well-draining soil and avoid waterlogged areas, which can cause root rot.
  • Full sun is ideal, though plants will welcome light shade in particularly sunny and hot climates.

Cultivars to Select

As alluded to above, there are now many cultivars to choose from based on your climate, space availability, and aesthetic preferences.

A close up of the red flowers of the hardy hibiscus with yellow centers, growing at the side of a path with cars and street scene in soft focus in the background.

Check out our 37 favorite hibiscus varieties here, for more interesting and colorful cultivars to choose from.

Here are a few of my favorite examples:

Luna White

Hibiscus x ‘Luna White’ has dark green foliage and giant eight-inch white flowers featuring burgundy throats.

Close up of the bloom of a 'Luna White' Hibiscus.

‘Luna White’

Hardy in Zones 4-9, this compact cultivar reaches a mature height of just 2-3 feet with a spread of 2-3 feet, making it an ideal container plant.

You can find this variety at Nature Hills Nursery.

Lady Baltimore

Hibiscus x ‘Lady Baltimore’ has large, pink, dark-throated flowers with green foliage.

A close up of the bright red flowers of 'Lord Baltimore' surrounded by foliage.

‘Lady Baltimore’

Tolerant of moderately moist to wet soils, they are early flowering and grow in Zones 5-10, growing 5 feet in height and width.

Plants are available at Burpee.

Midnight Marvel

Hibiscus x ‘Midnight Marvel’  has large, deep red flowers with dark burgundy maple-leaf-like foliage.

A close up of the 'Midnight Marvel' variety with bright red flowers set on a soft focus background.

‘Midnight Marvel’

Rounded plants with flowers from top to bottom grow in Zones 4-10 and reach 3-4 feet in height with a spread of 4-5 feet.

Find this cultivar at Burpee.

Moonshadow™ Rosita

This hybrid cultivar grows large, pink and red saucer-shaped flowers.

The best thing about Moonshadow™ Rosita is its incredible flowering season. It can bloom as early as mid-spring and last into early autumn.

Close up of a flower of the Moonshadow Rosita hardy hibiscus.

Moonshadow™ Rosita

The foliage is nothing to sneeze at, either. In many soils, it can be dark brown to dark violet (although it can be dark green, too, depending on the soil and climate).

Add this one to your pollinator garden and attract hummingbirds, butterflies, and bees!

You can find it at Nature Hills Nursery.

Managing Pests and Disease

Hardy hibiscus isn’t terribly susceptible to pests or disease, but they can have issues.

Here are a few of the main ones to look out for.


Herbivores aren’t generally a problem for these plants, though some people do report one pest as a potential problem:


In areas with deer pressure, deer browse can be a problem. A fence will help to keep them away.

Learn how to build your own deer fence with our DIY tutorial.


Hardy hibiscus can suffer insect damage to both its leaves and flowers, and there are numerous strategies for dealing with these.

My personal preference is to create a diverse ecosystem with predator habitat to encourage beneficial insect populations, and to employ integrated pest management.

But sometimes, if you want to save a plant, treatment can’t be avoided.

Some of the more common pests include:


These little suckers suck – literally.

The tiny black, brown, or white bugs are usually found on the underside of leaves or close to the stem tips, and on and around flower buds, drinking the plant’s juices while depositing their disease-spreading saliva.

An insecticidal soap spray applied weekly until the insects are gone takes care of them.

You can read more about dealing with aphids in the garden here.


Scale is a soft bodied sapsucker with no limbs, and it is related to aphids. These hide under rounded waxy scales on the underside of leaves.

The species commonly affecting hibiscus is black scale, though other colors and varieties may be found too. Scale can also be treated with insecticidal soap.

Read more about treating scale infestations here.


Another relative of aphids, whiteflies spread rapidly if left unchecked and can be hard to control. As the name implies, they are small, white flies often found crowded together on the underside of leaves, sucking the plant’s juices.

Neem oil-based insecticides can be used on the foliage, and affected leaves should be removed diligently and destroyed.

Read our guide on whitefly control for more information.


Most diseases that affect hardy hibiscus are fungal.

These plants may be susceptible to botrytis blight, leaf spot, and rust, all of which affect the leaves, as well as canker, affecting the stems and branches, and root rot.

Aboveground fungal diseases can be prevented by avoiding splashing water on leaves when watering.

A rust, leaf spot, or blight infection can be treated with a copper-based fungicide.

Affected parts should be removed from the garden and not composted, but instead burned or otherwise disposed of away from your gardens to avoid the spread of the disease.

The remaining leaves should then be sprayed.

Removal of affected plant parts is the only way to prevent the further spread of canker.

To prevent root rot, don’t overwater, and make sure the plant has good drainage.

Best Uses for Hardy Hibiscus Flowers

Since most varieties tolerate wet – but not permanently waterlogged – soils, they do well near water features or in damp spots.

A vertical close up picture of a white hardy hibiscus flower growing in the garden surrounded by green foliage.

Larger varieties make an excellent late-season backdrop, while smaller varieties are wonderful specimen plants to draw attention near balconies or walkways.

Plants provide a late-season wow factor in the garden right up until first frost.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:Herbaceous perennialFlower / Foliage Color:Blue, pink, purple, red, white; shades of green or purple
Native to:Eastern North AmericaMaintenance:Moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):4-11 (depending on cultivar)Soil Type:Medium, rich loam
Bloom Time / Season:Summer/fallSoil pH:6.0-7.5
Exposure:Full sun, protected from windSoil Drainage:Well-draining
Spacing:2-4 feetAttracts:Pollinators, including long-tongued bees and hummingbirds
Time to Maturity:2-3 yearsCompanion Planting:Benefit from taller shade plants nearby in hotter climates
Height:2-10 feetUses:Damp spots, specimen plant, backdrop
Spread:2-6 feetFamily:Malvaceae
Tolerance:Wet soilGenus:Hibiscus
Water Needs:HighSpecies:coccineus, dasycalyx, grandiflorus, laevis, lasiocarpos, moscheutos
Common Pests:Deer; aphids, scale, whitefliesCommon Disease:Botrytis blight, leaf spot, root rot, rust

Bring a Touch of the Tropics to Your Late Season Garden

Late in the season when there are fewer flowers blooming, hardy hibiscus can add a brilliant boost of extravagant color to your gardens.

Though known for its flowers, the hardy hibiscus has some beautiful foliage shapes and colors that add their own interest to your landscape as well, from deep green hearts to burgundy maple-like leaves.

What’s your experience with this plant? What varieties have you tried? Please share your successes, failures, and what you’ve learned in the comments below.

And for more information about growing flowers in your garden, check out these guides next:

Photo of author


While studying journalism in college in 2003, Trent Rhode stumbled upon the world of gardening while working on an assignment. He has been captivated by walnut trees, kiwi vines, daylilies, and the ecology of gardens and farms ever since. When he’s not on the land, Trent loves sharing his passion for gardening through his writing, with a particular interest in providing tips and tricks for working in harmony with natural processes to allow nature to do some of the heavy lifting.

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judith everspaugh
judith everspaugh (@guest_8371)
3 years ago

Very informational for newbies to hibiscus growing like me.

Beverly Dever
Beverly Dever (@guest_11178)
3 years ago

I have multi colored flower hibiscus in a pot that I brought into house for winter. Doing well but now leaves turning yellow & falling off, but still lots left on plant. Some empty branches but ill trim them before I bring plant to outside. I water very seldom. Any suggestions

Bob (@guest_11682)
3 years ago

As fit the bush to.

Last edited 3 years ago by Bob
Olivia (@guest_11982)
3 years ago

Would a hardy hibiscus be happy in a pot? I only have a patio garden. I had a tropical Hibiscus in a pot last year that did well but I do not have the space to bring it inside in winter.

would the hardy hibiscus be happy In a pot over winter on a covered patio? I’d move it close to the house and insulate the pot with bubble/burlap and put mulch on top.

Sharon (@guest_12263)
3 years ago

Thank you for this very informative article! I discovered this beautiful plant a few years ago and am now on a hunt for another one for my new location. The one I had was labeled “Cranberry Crush” and was a gorgeous poppy red! I am looking for the same one but the nurseries don’t have them yet this year. I can hardly wait to find one and am thankful for your planting advice! ????❤️

Reggie (@guest_12351)
3 years ago

Our Hibiscus plant bloomed profusely its first year in out summer exposure front yard. It remained outdoors for the winter. We live just west of Denver. Now that it’s nearing the end of May, we’re concerned that there doesn’t appear to be any new growth. How can we tell if it is still alive?

Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy(@rosekennedy)
Gardening Writer
Reply to  Reggie
3 years ago

Hello Reggie! Give it just a little more time before you give up hope. This is one of the last flowering shrubs to send out new growth in the spring and early summer, and it’s definitely hardy in your area. If it looks super dry and brittle, you may want to snap just the tip of one of the branches. If it’s at all pliable, or the inside wood shows signs of green, it’s probably still alive. The same goes for those little knobs you see along the branches, if any. They may look like dead wood, but they’re actually… Read more »

Nethan (@guest_14397)
Reply to  Reggie
2 years ago

It’s like a weed. You can’t get rid of it.

Annette (@guest_14719)
2 years ago

I recently received a gift of hardy hibiscus and it’s September 30th. I live in zone 5. With it being so late in the season should I repot it and store it in my cool, unheated basement that doesn’t freeze in the winter or should I go ahead and plant it outside with lots of mulch?
Thanks for the help!

Rose Kennedy
Rose Kennedy(@rosekennedy)
Gardening Writer
Reply to  Annette
2 years ago

Hello Annette and thanks for reading! I’d advise you to keep the pot indoors for the rest of this season and plant it out next spring with lots of mulch. Instead of the basement, would it be possible to keep it in a sunny window or a room with some grow lights? Hardy hibiscus will appreciate a bit of light. Last year, I kept mine on the bathroom floor where it could keep warm without getting too dry. The one window in there, paired with a grow light in one of the fixtures, provided plenty of light to keep it… Read more »

Joan Gerwin
Joan Gerwin (@guest_14926)
2 years ago

Hi u all=== There’s all kinds of hibiscus. First decide what u have. There’s hardy, then there’s perennial. Both almost the same. They’re all treated about the same. Use your P.C. & go from there. Everything u want to know is there. They’re an easy plant & beautiful to grow.

Lots of luck, Joan

Petra (@guest_18345)
1 year ago

I bought eight no better specified “hibiscus trees” at Menards in the clearance area. They look in good shape and seem pretty healthy, they have lovely red flowers, but there was no label on the pot. They’re about 4-5 ft tall, with a woody main structure. Therefore I have no idea what I bought exactly. The thing that worries me the most is that I live in Midwestern Ohio, and I am afraid to kill the plants if I put them in the ground as initially planned… such a dilemma, but for 5 dollars each, it would’ve been a pity… Read more »

Last edited 1 year ago by Petra
Clare Groom
Clare Groom(@clareg)
Reply to  Petra
1 year ago

Hi Petra, could you upload a photo so we can try and identify them for you?

Mike g.
Mike g. (@guest_29669)
1 year ago

Little worms eat my plants’ leaves. I dust them with Sevin, kills for a bit then there right back. I propagated a lot so I have quite a few. I’ve tried cutting them to the ground, cleaned the soil all around them, but just can’t seem to get control of them. I also tried soap sprays.

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu(@allison-sidhu)
Reply to  Mike g.
1 year ago

What do the worms look like? See our guide to caterpillar infestations on hibiscus plants for additional suggestions.