How to Grow and Care for Pecan Trees

Carya illinoinensis

Before we can get into the meat of this pecan tree growing guide, there’s something very important we need to get out of the way:


If you say PEE-can… you might just have to go away.

Seriously, I can’t even. I’ve lived in Texas for close to 30 years, and it’s our state tree. So I get to say how it’s pronounced!

Just kidding. But really. It’s puh-KAHN.

Pecan fruit dried and split open to show the nut-containing kernel inside, on a branch with brown leaves.

We link to vendors to help you find relevant products. If you buy from one of our links, we may earn a commission.

The pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is a large deciduous tree that is best known for its tasty nuts that are the star of many sweet and savory dishes.

Despite its bounteous gifts, some people consider the pecan a hassle, because it’s a messy thing, what with dropping copious amounts of twigs, leaves, and fruit every fall.

My San Antonio-reared husband has not-so-fond memories of being sent out in the yard as a young child to clean up after his family’s large and sloppy pecan trees. This may explain why we have close to 60 trees on our small suburban lot, but not one of them is a pecan.

The green fruit of the pecan tree split to show the nut inside, growing on a skinny green branch with taller branches and blue sky in the background.

That and we don’t really have room for this mammoth, which can get as large as 130 feet tall and 75 feet wide. If I had a few acres, I would love to grow this beauty. Have you seen the price of grocery-store pecans?

Without further ado, here’s what’s to come, followed by our top tips so you can grow your own.

Origins and Current State

While Texas, in true narcissistic Texan form, lays claim to the tree, it is actually native to a large swath of the United States, from south of San Antonio east to southern Louisiana and north through Oklahoma, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Kentucky, Missouri, Indiana, and Illinois.

And it is now commercially grown across the southern US from sea to sea, as well as in Kansas and Missouri.

A member of the hickory family, the pecan is hardy to zone 5. However, that isn’t to say that anyone located in zones 5 and higher can necessarily grow it.

A grove of pecan trees creating dappled sunlight on brown soil.

Pecans love the heat. According to William Reid, Pecan Research and Extension Specialist for Kansas and Missouri, pecans require warm summers with warm temperatures at night to ripen.

So, even though an area might be in zone 5 based on its low temperatures, that doesn’t mean the nights stay warm enough to grow pecans, according to Reid.

If in doubt, consult your local county extension agent to find out whether your area has the right climate for C. illinoinensis, and to find out which variety will do best locally.

Which Type Is Best (and Where to Buy)

C. illinoinensis does not grow true from seed, so you’ll want to get a small grafted tree from a reputable source.

Most experts recommend purchasing a 4- to 8-foot tree; this size has the best transplant success.

Pecans growing on a tree with light green pods and dark green leaves.

We’ll give you a few varieties that are known to do well in various states, but as we mentioned above, you’ll want consult your local extension office for the final word on what will do best in your area. In addition to native types, many cultivars have been developed.

Reid recommends gardeners in Kansas and Missouri look for ‘Kanza,’ ‘Hark,’ or ‘Shepherd.’

Incidentally, Reid says gardeners in northern climes should stay away from trees labeled as “hardy pecan.”

“It’s a marketing term,” he says. “It’s just a wild seedling from Missouri.” Gardeners should instead look for specific cultivars known to do well locally, he says.

Moving further south, ‘Amling’ does well in North Carolina, and Texans have good luck with ‘Caddo.’

Mississippians should look for ‘Kiowa,’ while Georgian and Louisianan gardeners often plant ‘Elliott,’ and might want to check out this tree from Perfect Plants, available via Amazon.

‘Elliot’ Tree, 4×4″ or 5-Gallon

You’ll get a tree in a 4-inch or 5-gallon pot, as well as fertilizer and a planting guide.

‘Elliot’ trees in 4x4x10 or #5 containers are also available from Nature Hills Nursery, and they’ll do well in zones 6-9.

Square closeup of a small 'Elliot' pecan sapling.

C. illinoinensis ‘Elliott’

Though the cultivar isn’t specified, two to three-foot pecan trees are also available from the Arbor Day Foundation, and they’re guaranteed to arrive healthy or they will be replaced at no charge. Trees will be shipped at a suitable time for planting in your area.

Square photo of Carya illinoinensis.

C. illinoinensis Trees

If you’re located up North, ‘Pawnee’ might be for you. This cultivar has been known to grow with high yields as far north as Rhode Island, Michigan, and Washington, good for zones 6-9. A bit smaller in stature, this type will grow to a mature height of 20-30 feet with a spread of 15-25 feet.

Square image of 'Pawnee' pecans growing on a tree branch with green leaves.

C. illinoinensis ‘Pawnee,’ available from Nature Hills

Candy’ is another nice variety that’s known for reaching productive maturity sooner than other cultivars, and producing ripe nuts earlier in the season. With a mature height of 50-70 feet and spread of 40-50 feet, these also grow well in zones 6-9.

Square image of a grove of 'Candy' pecan trees with a green lawn and blue sky.

C. illinoinensis ‘Candy,’ available from Nature Hills Nursery

Finally, ‘Desirable’ is a cultivar that’s hard to resist, and it’s been a widely planted commercial favorite since the ‘60s. This type grows quickly and it’s self pruning, so you’ll get giant clusters of large nuts faster than you might from other varieties.

Square closeup shot of 'Desirable' pecan tree, with green nuts developing and dark green leaves.

C. illinoinensis ‘Desirable,’ available from Nature Hills

Keep in mind that this one often reaches mature heights and spreads of 75-100 feet.

One or More?

You’ll want to choose a planting site carefully to accommodate the size of the tree.

Plant C. illinoinensis at least 30 feet from any structures, more depending on the cultivar, and in a spot that gets lots of sun. Pecans require at least 3 feet of well-drained soil, so rocky areas with thin soil don’t work.

These trees are best able to take up critical nutrients from soil that has a pH level of 6-7.

Pecans must be cross-pollinated (usually by the wind) to reproduce well. If there are plenty of these trees in your neighborhood, you can probably get away with planting just one. But if you are the lone area gardener growing C. illinoinensis, you might need to plant a couple to get any harvestable nuts.

A grove of pecan trees with ground covered with dry, brown leaves.

Dig a hole the same depth as the root ball and two or three times as wide. Break up the dug-out soil and replace it into the hole. Water thoroughly and add a thick layer of mulch.

Another important component to planting a pecan is the need to immediately cut some of it off. The general guideline is to prune the top one-third of the tree, but that number can vary.

Lenny Wells, Extension Horticulture Specialist for pecans at the University of Georgia, advises that larger trees will require greater cutbacks, making the above-ground portions of the plant more manageable for limited, immature root systems.

Keep in mind that this type of pruning should only be done on a dormant tree, and is often already done before sale by many nurseries.

A Thirsty Customer

Usually found along riverbanks in its native environment, the pecan likes a lot of water. Young trees need 10 to 15 gallons of water per week, whether from rainfall or from irrigation.

As they mature and begin producing, they need about two inches of water per week from April to October, applied at the drip line.

Pecan trees in the fall with leaves changing to shades of yellow and gold, with brown soil and green grass, and blue sky in the background.

Fertilization is also important for C. illinoinensis. In mid- to late March, apply four pounds of balanced fertilizer such as 10-10-10 for each inch of trunk diameter.

As your plant matures, year after year, you’ll want to prune to have a central leader and just four to six lateral scaffold branches. Once the tree reaches fruiting maturity, little pruning is required.

A Spray and a Kid with a Stick: Dealing with Pests and Diseases

The primary pest that bugs these trees is scab, a fungus that produces black lesions on the plant’s leaves and shuck.

Treat scab with a fungicide such as this one from Southern Ag, available via Amazon.

Southern Ag Garden Friendly Fungicide, 8 Oz.

Mix one teaspoon of Garden Friendly Fungicide into one gallon of water.

Aphids and mites can also attack pecan leaves. For these, use an insecticidal soap such as this one from Safer Brand, also available through Amazon.

Safer Brand 5110-6 Insect Killing Soap, 32 Oz.

This 32-ounce bottle is ready to use.

If fall webworms weave their billowy nests in your trees, send a kid with a stick out to tear out and pull down the webbing, worms, and all into a bucket of soapy water.

Don’t Buy That Corn Syrup Just Yet

The fruit of a pecan is technically not a true nut, but is instead a drupe — a special type of fruit in which we sometimes eat the fruit (like peaches), whereas other times the seed inside the pit is what we’re after.

The same goes for almonds. But, hey, call it what you like, as long as you invite me to share the desserts you make from it!

Alas, don’t be promising a tasty pie with fruit from your newly planted C. illinoinensis. You’ll have to wait six to 10 years after planting before you’ll get a good crop of nuts.

Vertical image of a pecan tree growing along a roadside in the foreground, with more trees growing in rows in the background, planted in a green lawn.

And then, don’t be surprised if you get a great crop one year, followed by a small or nonexistent crop the next year. If a pecan senses drought conditions one autumn, it will “turn off” nut production for the following year. This is how it evolved to deal with stressful situations.

Pecans are ready to eat when the husks crack open. Most folks just pick up the nuts after they’ve fallen to the ground, though do you want to get to them before they rot, or before local wildlife get to them.

The nuts are generally ready for harvest in October or November, and a mature tree will produce 40 to 50 pounds of nuts per year.

The Kitchen Calls

You’ve babied and loved on your pecan for years, and it’s finally time to taste the fruit of your labors! (In the meantime, let’s imagine all of the great things you’re going to be able to enjoy…)

How about starting with a cheese ball from Vintage Kitty? This mouthwatering appetizer features butter-roasted apple chips and rosemary, in addition to toasted pecans.

Two whole, one broken, and one shelled pecan on a brown wood surface.

Snackers might want to whip up a batch of granola with this recipe from our sister site, Foodal, which calls for a tasty blend of pecans, oats, seeds, and dried fruit.

This spinach salad from Our Perfect Palette includes the satisfying crunch of pecans, along with strawberries and a poppyseed dressing.

For dessert, consider a bourbon pecan pie with a chocolate crust from Hunger Thirst Play. A couple tablespoons of Kentucky’s favorite liquor gives this treat a rich and deep flavor. Or, keep things simple with this recipe for easy homemade candied pecans from Feast in Thyme.

It’s Why We Reproduce, Isn’t It?

Pecan trees can be a bit of a chore, what with the initial pruning and the wait for maturity. But if you have kids, you can just send them out to pick up the nuts and rake the leaves, so there’s that, at least.

Closeup of a pile of more than a dozen brown-shelled pecans.

The pecan nut the star of many classic dishes, and a tasty addition to many more. Especially those traditionally eaten in the fall, when the large, stately tree shares its bounty with us.

Do you have pecan or other nut trees in your landscape? Share your experience in the comments section below. And if you’d like to learn about another fruitful tree, check out our guide to growing avocados.

Product photos via Perfect Plants, Nature Hills Nursery, Tony Rodd, Southern Ag, and Safer Brand. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock.

About Gretchen Heber

A former garden editor for a daily newspaper in Austin, Texas, Gretchen Heber goes through entirely too many pruners and garden gloves in a year’s time. She’s never met a succulent she didn’t like and gets really irritated every 3-4 years when Austin actually has a freeze cold enough to kill them. To Gretchen, nothing is more rewarding than a quick dash to the garden to pluck herbs to season the evening meal. And it’s definitely time for a happy dance when she’s able to beat the squirrels to the peaches, figs, or loquats.

Notify of
Newest Most Voted
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
Cheryl T Setzer
Cheryl T Setzer (@guest_2095)
3 years ago

You are so right on the pronunciation of puh-KAHN! I get mad when I hear someone say PEE-can! This article is very interesting & I enjoyed the article on pruning crape myrtles. (I agree with the spelling of crape also!) If I need to learn something about trees & pruning, now I know what website to go to! Thank you so much!

Ann Adams
Ann Adams (@guest_2742)
2 years ago

I enjoyed reading this article. I do have a question, though. I have a large pecan tree in my back yard. A wind storm early this fall broke a good sized limb. The limb didn’t come off completely. Since it had a large number of pecans on it which weren’t ready to harvest, I didn’t finish removing the limb. I noticed a week or so after it fell that it was putting out new leaf buds. So, I am wondering if the broken branch can be soaked in rooting hormone and rooted. The broken limb is about 2 to 2.5… Read more »

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
Noble Member
Reply to  Ann Adams
2 years ago

Thanks for getting in touch, Ann. You may have some luck rooting softwood cuttings in the spring, or you may want to try right away, particularly if you’re set up to start your cuttings indoors. With sterilized pruners, take 6-inch cuttings at a 45 degree angle about an inch below a leaf node, and remove all leaves from your cuttings except a few at the very tip of each. Scarify the bottom couple inches of the cuttings a bit, dip in rooting hormone, and gently tap off the excess. Stick your cuttings into a rooting medium or sterile potting mix… Read more »

F Miller
F Miller (@guest_4401)
2 years ago

This is our Southern California Pecan 60-75ft tall. In 30 years we have not gotten a single pecan from it. Just as they are coming to fruition dozens of four footed friends start to scramble all over it, for weeks raining husks onto our roof. Oh well, we have very fat squirrels every winter! ????

Gary Sullivan
Gary Sullivan (@guest_4646)
2 years ago

Thanks for your article, My question, I have several pecan trees in the backyard. The last couple of years, I’ve had good bloom and the looks of a good crop, until the last of June into July. the trees shed most of there nuts. Help. Live in the Texas panhandle

Sandra (@guest_4808)
2 years ago

What about squirrels? I have a tree of great pecans but they knock them down while still green and eat a lot!!

djukester (@guest_5508)
1 year ago

Really? Who cares how folks pronounce it. Just eat them 😆

Colrain (@guest_6200)
1 year ago

Our pecan tree ruins everything in sight when the pods start falling. The patio is stained and the table along with the chairs. My question is, can you cut the part that houses the pecan pods off without killing the tree itself?

Nan Schiller
Nan Schiller (@rellihcsnan8)
Reply to  Colrain
1 year ago

Hello Colrain – If you’d rather dispose of the nuts than harvest them for eating, you may be inclined to want to prune off the nut-bearing branches. However, this could damage your tree. Pruning is best done in late winter. However, to be rid of nut-bearing branches, you would have to do it in summer or fall. Unfortunately, pruning at these times may prove detrimental, as a flush of growth during heat, or one as dormancy begins, is likely to cause undue stress, and may render the tree vulnerable to disease. Instead, you may harvest the nuts as neatly as… Read more »

Betty (@guest_7276)
1 year ago

How long do the “squiggles” fall? We have four trees and they are inundating our yard and deck. Do they mean we will have a good crop or none?

Laura Melchor
Laura Melchor (@lauramelchor)
Reply to  Betty
1 year ago

Hi Betty! Thank you for your question. By squiggles (love the name), I’m guessing you’re referring to the catkins? These are the pollen-filled male flowers falling from the trees, and the good news is that if you have four trees, there’s a good chance you’ll have a nice crop of pecans, especially if you planted four different varieties. The reason is this: wind-pollinating pecans produce male and female flowers at different times and in different locations on the tree, meaning that one tree cannot pollinate itself. Some varieties of pecan trees mature the male flowers first. These are called protandrous,… Read more »

Denise Spaulding
Denise Spaulding (@guest_8063)
1 year ago

I just today discovered a pecan tree in our park! Also a chestnut I believe. When the pecan pods have cracked and nut pods are exposed, do I need to do anything to them before eating? Or are they edible off the tree? I brought a couple in to investigate what I found.

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-sidhu)
Noble Member
Reply to  Denise Spaulding
1 year ago

What a wonderful find, Denise! Pecans are ready to harvest when the green hulls split, and they can be collected off the ground. Look for nuts with intact brown shells, and discard any that show signs of rot. You can crack and eat them right away! If you plan to store them, they will need to be dried or cured in some way, or you can crack them and store the meat inside in zip-top bags in the freezer. Raw pecans are delicious, or you can roast shelled nuts in a frying pan or in the oven- just be sure… Read more »

jacqueline heller
jacqueline heller (@guest_8140)
1 year ago

We are about to purchase property and build a house on a lot with a gorgeous huge old pecan tree in the front corner. I want to prune the low branches and insist the builder find a way to build around it and save the tree but my husband says laying the foundation right next to the tree will be too much for the root system and we’ll lose it anyway. Thoughts? Any chance a pecan tree is sturdy enough to survive? Are the roots widespread?

Richard G Root
Richard G Root (@guest_10857)
Reply to  jacqueline heller
9 months ago

While Scranton, pa exists because of coal with mine subsidence like a Centralia, Pa, there’s neighborhoods where the houses were leveled because those born in civilization don’t put up with subsidence. At any rate, I like boron as borax, that trace minerals like manganese are on the side of miracle gro because a molecule of B12 has an atom of cobalt, with Boron as borax trees that grow in fields in Pennsylvania (black locust) can put on thirty feet in a single year. One might have to add some 10-10-10 or some copper sulfate. A red clover has leaves the… Read more »