How to Grow and Care for Parrot Tulips in the Spring Garden

Tulipa gesneriana var. dracontia

The parrot tulip, Tulipa gesneriana var. dracontia, is an intriguing cultivated variety with twisted, curled, and ruffled petals streaked by vivid combinations of colors.

We’re all familiar with tulips and their cheerful, colorful blooms that herald the arrival of spring, and the promise of warmth and sunshine.

In this article, we highlight the unique qualities of the parrot tulip, and offer tips for growing this spectacular flower successfully.

A vertical close up picture of vibrant red and yellow blooms of the parrot tulip growing in the late spring garden with a cloudy sky in soft focus in the background. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.

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Let’s dive in!

Tulip Essentials

Spring blooming tulips grow from bulbs planted in the fall in USDA Hardiness Zones 3 to 7.

Bulbs vary in size and are usually planted four to six inches deep, with two to six inches between them, in containers or in the garden.

A close up of flower bulbs ready for planting set on a wooden surface.

There are many varieties available, ranging from petite four-inch botanical species to 30-inch cultivated giants. All have a four- to six-inch spread.

A full sun location is ideal, as well as average, well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.

One inch of water per week is required during the growing season.

You may feed the bulbs with a balanced, slow-release, all-purpose fertilizer, such as 10-10-10 (NPK) in spring before sprouting, and again in fall.

A close up of the 'Black Parrot' flower starting to unfurl in the late spring garden on a green soft focus background.

Perennials by nature, many spring bulbs are grown as annuals, because cultivated varieties often lose their vigor after the first year.

Relatively free of pests and disease, the main enemies of this plant are waterlogged soil and hungry rodents.

With these basics, you’re ready to grow.

You’ll find everything you need to know to grow and care for tulips in this growing guide, as well as an introduction to the many varieties to choose from.

So, what else do we need to know about parrot tulips?

Let’s find out!

A Majestic Mutation

The Tulipa genus traces its origins to the ancient Ottoman Empire, where these plants were retrieved from the wild for ornamental cultivation.

A close up of a dark flower bud before opening with yellow and red edging on a soft focus background.

Periodically, mutations appeared with unusual qualities that sparked interest in growers.

One such aberration was due to Arabis mosaic, aka Tulip Mosaic Virus, spread by aphids. It caused random, vivid color striations across the tepals – this is the catch-all word for the inner petals as well as the outer sepals.

Another anomaly, possibly a mutation of a late-blooming variety, had the fragrant, ruffled, and striated tepals of today’s parrot, though with a weaker stem.

A vertical close up picture of the ruffled pink flowers of the parrot tulip on a soft focus background.

The highly sought after “broken” flowers contributed to a “tulip mania” in the Netherlands in the 1600s, where bulbs became more expensive than houses.

By the early 20th century, breeders had cultivated improved versions with wonderful color combinations and tepal characteristics, as well as stronger stems that would make them quite marketable.

A close up of a vivid colored flower starting to open up with frilly, ruffled edges on a soft focus background.

The name “parrot” is said to represent not only the flower’s “plumage,” but also its beak-like bud.

Today’s cultivars have flowers that measure an outstanding five inches across, many with stems over 20 inches tall.

Bloom time is from mid- to late spring, making these flamboyant flowers an excellent choice for interplanting with early blooming types, to extend the tulip season right up to summer.

How to Care for Parrot Tulips

The fancier types of cultivated tulips tend to be a bit more fragile than the more plain varieties, and benefit from some extra attention.

A close up of a mass planting of vibrant tulips in the spring garden on a soft focus background.

Parrot tulips are not as tolerant of temperature extremes as some varieties.

In addition, although the stems are considerably stronger than they once were – thanks to continued cultivation – they are not as tolerant of high winds or drenching rain as the tulips you may be more familiar with.

A close up of a multicolored yello, red, white, and green bloom of a parrot tulip, growing in the late spring garden on a soft focus background.

For the best results, and spectacular blooms, keep these tips in mind:

  1. Choose a location that is somewhat sheltered from strong winds. Avoid northern placements and consider foundation planting for the shelter a building provides.
  2. If heavy rain is predicted, cover your plants with large, lightweight containers if possible. Weigh them down with bricks or rocks to prevent them from damaging blooms. Upended storage tubs or even portable lawn chairs will do.
  3. When growing bulbs as perennials, apply two to three inches of mulch when the foliage turns brown and withers. This adds insulation against intense summer heat, as well as protection from winter cold. Remove the mulch in early spring, before they start to sprout.

We all have our quirks. In the case of these spectacular flowers, they are well worth indulging in, considering the flashy show they put on in return.

Parrot Tulip Cultivars to Love

There are more than 50 different cultivars of T. gesneriana var. dracontia, in colors that range from nearly black to orange, pink, purple, red, white, and yellow, as well as multicolored variations.

Here are some that you are sure to fall in love with:

Apricot Parrot

With oversized apricot and pink tepals streaked with green and yellow, this winner of the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit is a spectacular addition to the spring garden.

A close up of the multicolored bloom of the 'Apricot Parrot' with distinctive ruffled edges, on a soft focus background.

‘Apricot Parrot’

Blooming in late spring, this cultivar grows to a mature height of 16 to 24 inches tall.

Find bags of 10, 20, 50, or 100 bulbs available at Eden Brothers.

Black Parrot

This deep purple, feathery-edged beauty adds a dramatic touch to the spring landscape. It’s easy to see why this variety was awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit.

A close up of the 'Black Parrot' bloom with distinctive ruffled edges and dark color, on a green soft focus background.

‘Black Parrot’

The large, almost-black flowers are lightly fragrant, and grow atop 16- to 24-inch stems.

Find bags of 10, 20, 50, or 100 bulbs available at Eden Brothers.

Victoria’s Secret

Large, bright purple blooms with a bright yellow center and fringed edges make this cultivar a beautiful addition to borders or cut flower arrangements.

A mass planting of the 'Victoria's Secret' parrot flower with vibrant purple petals.

A brand cultivar released in 2021, ‘Victoria’s Secret’ grows to twenty inches and blooms in mid to late spring.

Green Wave

‘Green Wave’ adds a burst of color with flame-like blooms of green shooting up the centers of the flowers with scalloped margins of mauve and bright pink.

I don’t think I’ve ever seen a color combination so intriguing.

Blooming in mid to late spring, with a mature height of 18 inches, ‘Green Wave’ is a spectacular addition to your garden.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type:Flowering bulbFlower / Foliage Color:All except true blue/green
Native to:Middle East, TurkeyMaintenance:Low to moderate
Hardiness (USDA Zone):3-7Soil Type:Organically-rich, loose
Bloom Time / Season:SpringSoil pH:6.0-7.0
Exposure:Full sun to part shadeSoil Drainage:Well-draining
Spacing:2-6 inchesCompanion Planting:Alliums, daffodils, lilies
Planting Depth:4-6 inchesUses:Flower garden, perennial beds
Height:16-24 inchesOrder:Liliales
Spread:Up to 6 inchesFamily:Liliaceae
Growth Rate:MediumGenus:Tulipa
Water Needs:ModerateSpecies:Gesneriana
Common Pests and Diseases:Aphids, Japanese beetles, slugs, wireworms; Augusta disease, botrytis, botrytis blightVariety: Dracontia

Pamper Your Parrots

I know you can’t wait to add parrot tulips to your outdoor living space! Their spectacular display is well worth the extra effort required.

A close up of a variety of different colored cultivars of the parrot tulip, pictured growing in the garden with soft green foliage, fading to soft focus in the background.

Place them in tall containers flanking an entryway, or in a foundation bed where they can show off their sumptuous blooms, and benefit from the shelter of your home.

Interplant them with hostas, leafy plants that help shield their delicate stems, and hide their fading foliage as spring gives way to summer.

If you grow them as perennials, remember to cover with mulch after the foliage dies to the ground.

As annuals, simply lift them when they’ve finished blooming, and plant new bulbs of your choice in the fall. You can change your color scheme each year, if you like.

And finally, be sure to get plenty of bulbs so you can enjoy them both outdoors and indoors. The tall, slender stems and exotic blooms take any vase arrangement to bold new heights!

Have you ever grown parrot tulips? What advice can you offer? Please tell us in the comments section below.

Looking for other varieties? Check out our “Types of Tulip Flowers: 15 Beautiful Divisions” or some of these specific tulip guides next:

Photo of author


Nan Schiller is a writer with deep roots in the soil of southeastern Pennsylvania. Her background includes landscape and floral design, a BS in business from Villanova University, and a Certificate of Merit in floral design from Longwood Gardens. An advocate of organic gardening with native plants, she’s always got dirt under her nails and freckles on her nose. With wit and hopefully some wisdom, she shares what she’s learned and is always ready to dig into a new project!

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