I’m always interested in growing plants that offer a solid ROI. And while plants that offer a lovely flower or an unusual leaf shape in exchange for my work in cultivating them are nice, even better is a plant that rewards with something I can put on the dinner table.
And the caper bush fits this bill to a T. Edible flower buds that can be grown for food or beauty? I’m in!
The tragic dichotomy of growing this plant, however, is that in order to harvest its delicious fruit, you rob the plant of its equally spectacular fragrant and white to light pink blooms, which are 2 to 3 inches across and feature numerous, dramatically long purple-pink stamens.
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The flowers last about 16 hours, but open successively.
The solution is to plant twice as many shrubs as you might otherwise need. Let half bloom, and harvest the capers from the other half. Or you can let the flowers bloom, after which they will produce a caper berry.
Let’s learn more about growing this plant, which is also called Flinders rose.
What You’ll Learn
What are Capers?
Capers are the edible flower bud of the many-branched caper bush, which also produces edible berries. Both are pickled before they are eaten, as they are very bitter when raw. Other parts of C. spinosa are used in medicines and cosmetics.
Olive-shaped C. spinosa berries are larger than caper buds, which are more roundish. Both, when pickled, have a piquant, tangy flavor, though the flavor of the buds is more intense. The berries are also starchier.
These pickled bits of goodness are typically used as a seasoning or condiment. They are especially delicious with fish and other oily or rich foods. The berries are sometimes served in cocktails.
Cultivation and History
Native to the Mediterranean, C. spinosa plants require dry heat and lots of sun to grow. They will not survive temperatures below 18°F. In their native environment, they are evergreen. In the caper bush diaspora, however, they may lose their leaves over winter.
In parts of the country where it gets cold, it’s best to grow C. spinosa in a container and let it overwinter indoors.
Caper bushes can grow three to five feet high and spread four or five feet wide. They like well-drained, rocky soil similar to that favored by another beloved Mediterranean food plant, olive trees.
They like masonry so much, they can be seen growing on the stone walls of ancient buildings throughout Italy!
Cultivation in the US isn’t rampant, although gardeners in the southwest and in parts of California have had some success.
The climate where I live in Central Texas is often compared to that of the Mediterranean, but local experts that I consulted are unaware of a booming caper bush-growing phenomenon in our area. I might just have to start one!
C. spinosa can be tricky to propagate, but here’s some information on the most commonly used methods:
Seeds are best sown when fresh. If this is not possible, the seeds require cold stratification to germinate, and even with the best care, germination can be sporadic and lengthy — as long as three months.
If seeds are not fresh, follow these steps:
- Drop seeds into a quart jar filled with warm water (110°F-115°F).
- Allow seeds to soak for 12 hours – no need to maintain the water temperature. It’ll cool to room temperature, and that’s fine.
- Remove seeds from water, wrap in a moist towel, place in a plastic bag, and refrigerate for 65-70 days.
- Remove from the refrigerator and soak again, as in step 2.
- Prepare 6-inch clay pots or a deep planting tray with a mix consisting of 50 percent planting mix, and 25 percent each of perlite and sand.
- Plant the seeds ¼ to ½ inch deep; water well and keep in a warm (70°F-85°F) place in part or full sun.
- Keep soil moist during the germination period, which should start within 3-4 weeks, and continue for as long as three months. Keep in mind that all seeds may not germinate at the same time.
- If seedlings become too crowded in the growing container, use scissors to cut off the smaller, weaker seedlings. Don’t pull them up, or you risk damaging the root systems of the healthier seedlings.
- When seedlings are 3-5 inches tall, transplant each to a one-gallon container filled with the same planting mix as used for the seeds. Take care not to disturb their root systems.
- Water well immediately and cover each container with a plastic bag. If it’s spring or summer, place the container in a shady spot. If it’s winter, put the container in a warm (70°F-85°F) area.
- After one week, cut off the top of the plastic bag so the seedlings will be gradually exposed to the natural environment.
- Enlarge the opening after another 10 days.
- After another week, remove the plastic bags and place the plants in a shaded area.
- If transplanting to the ground, do so in early spring after the last frost. If planting in a larger container, do so when your plant is 6-8 inches tall and appears healthy.
- Collect 3- to 4-inch cuttings from stems of the plant that are at least ¼ inch wide.
- Insert a pencil into a container of potting mix. Remove the pencil, creati a hole.
- Immerse the cut ends into a rooting medium for 15 seconds, and then carefully insert into the holes you created with the pencil.
Keep in mind that your young plant won’t produce flowers for two to three years.
How to Grow
- If planting outdoors, choose a site that has very good drainage and no flooding.
- Water C. spinosa frequently during its first two years of life. After that, the plant is fairly drought tolerant.
- Fertilize with 21-0-0 or 16-16-16 two to three times during spring and summer.
- Don’t prune your young plant for the first three years. Thereafter, prune to the ground in November or December.
- Good drainage is critical.
- Water for two years, then let it be.
- Fertilize when plant is young.
Cultivars to Select
In the US, you won’t find a huge variety of caper bushes for sale. One thing to look for is whether the variety you are considering has thorns, as is typical of the plant, or is one of the more newly developed spineless varieties.
‘Senza spina,’ for example, is an Italian spineless variety, whereas ‘spinosa comune’ is an Italian type that does have thorns.
If you’re looking for a live plant, you might be able to find them in the spring at your local nursery.
If you’re feeling adventurous and would like to try growing from seed, Eden Brothers carries seeds in small packets or in bulk.
Managing Pests and Disease
In the US, you may see weevils, which can be treated by sprinkling diatomaceous earth around the base of your plants.
As of this writing, other insect pests that may affect capers are limited to the Mediterranean. Growers in Italy, Malta, South Africa, Spain, Argentina, and Turkey may be bothered by shield bugs such as Bagrada hilaras, which has been also spotted in California and Arizona. Check out this article to find out how to get rid of these pests.
A number of species of flies, too, are known to bother plants growing in Italy, Malta, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Pakistan, Tunisia, Jordan, and Indonesia. For these pests, try fly paper or insecticidal soap to get rid of them.
These bushes may be troubled by fungal infections, which can be treated with a fungicide.
The immature, tight flower buds are ready to pick when they are dark, olive green, and at least 6 millimeters wide (about 1/4 inch). You can also harvest them as they get larger, up to about 14 millimeters (a little over 1/2 inch), after which they’ll start expanding into their flower form.
The smaller they are, the more desirable, and therefore, the more expensive. Each size has been given a label, as follows:
- Non-pareil: up to 7 mm
- Surfines: 7-8 mm
- Capucines: 8-9 mm
- Capotes: 9-11 mm
- Fines: 11-13 mm
- Grusas: 14+ mm
Pick them by hand in the morning when they’ve reached the size you desire. If your plant has thorns, be sure to wear gloves to protect your hands.
Alas, unlike many other garden fruits such as tomatoes, capers cannot be eaten raw.
Well, they can be, but they’re a bitter mouthful.
Much like olives, you can preserve capers with salt or with vinegar. For either, you’ll start by carefully picking through your harvest, removing stems and loose debris. Rinse thoroughly in a colander. Soak the capers in clean water for three days, changing the water every day.
To Preserve in Salt:
- Dry the fruit with a dish towel.
- Layer the capers in a small jar. Add several capers, then a teaspoon of coarse sea salt, and repeat. Screw on the jar’s lid and shake up to distribute the salt. Remove the lid and replace with one layer of a paper napkin or cheesecloth. Use a rubber band to secure the covering.
- Place the jar in a place where it will get airflow, but not in direct sunlight.
- Every day, drain the liquid that accumulates, and add another teaspoonful of salt.
- After about a week, or when the capers stop producing liquid, transfer to a clean jar and top with a lid.
- Store on a shelf in a cool, dark place for up to a year. Rinse the salt off before use.
- To preserve one cup of capers, thoroughly mix a solution of 1 cup apple cider vinegar, 1 cup water, and 2 tablespoons coarse, non-iodized salt until salt dissolves.
- Place the capers in a jar, pour the solution over the top, screw on the lid, shake gently, and store in the refrigerator. They’ll be ready to eat after about one week, but will be even tastier after a month.
Incidentally, the leaves are edible too, sometimes eaten raw but other times pickled.
Quick Reference Growing Chart
|Plant Type:||Perennial||Flower / Foliage Color:||Multi-color blooms with purple, cream, yellow|
|Hardiness (USDA Zone):||8-11||Tolerance:||Drought|
|Season:||Late spring, summer||Soil Type:||Rocky|
|Exposure:||Full sun||Soil pH:||7.5-8 is optimal, tolerates 6.1-8.5|
|Time to Maturity:||2 years||Soil Drainage:||Well-draining|
|Spacing:||2-3 feet||Companion Planting:||Sage|
|Planting Depth:||1/4-1/2 inch (seeds)||Uses:||Edible landscaping, mass plantings, herb garden|
|Height:||2-3 feet||Attracts:||Bees, butterflies, hummingbirds|
|Water Needs:||Low once established||Genus:||Capparis|
|Pests & Diseases:||Weevils, butterfly and moth larvae, fungal infections||Species:||spinosa|
Recipes and Cooking Ideas
Now we get to the best part. The eating part. How about we start with a classic Greek salad? This one calls for chopped tomatoes, onions, and cucumbers, in addition to capers.
And for the main course, consider Homemade Einkorn Ravioli with Sundried Tomato, Capers and Ricotta.
Another main course option is Chicken Piccata, a classic use of these tasty orbs.
Or, Just Grow Nasturtiums
This plant is not widely grown in the US and I think we should change that, don’t you? Just look at those beautiful flowers! Why not add this beauty to your landscape and create a conversation piece? Your neighbors will be green with envy.
After this plant becomes established, it’s easy to care for, and drought tolerant. You can pick the flower buds or leave them. Just be sure to bring it indoors to overwinter, unless you live where temps don’t drop below 18°F.
Are you willing to take a chance on something new and interesting — on a plant that gives back in the form of tiny green globes of goodness?
Oh, I have to let you in on a secret, now that we’ve been through all this together. Nasturtium seeds are said to have a similar taste to that of capers. So if a caper bush isn’t in your future, consider growing nasturtiums instead.
Perhaps you’ve already grown a caper bush? Share your experience in the comments section below.
If you’re looking for other flowering plants with edible blossoms or buds, consider these:
- Borage (Borago officinalis)
- Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis)
- Lavender, various types
- Pansies (Viola tricolor)
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