How to Grow and Care for Grape Hyacinth

Muscari spp.

With their dazzling colors, fragrance, and easy growth, bulbs make a great addition to the garden.

Take grape hyacinth, for example.

A close up vertical picture of grape hyacinth flowers growing in the garden in bright sunshine fading to soft focus in the background. To the center and bottom of the frame is green and white text.

This pretty, petite bulb is a perennial spring charmer with a carefree habit, and striking colors that look fantastic in small stands or big, bold drifts.

They can be grown in beds or containers, forced indoors for winter growth, or naturalized in woodland settings.

Reliably cold hardy, they also multiply freely, naturalizing abundantly in almost any soil type.

And their lovely, light scent on a cool spring breeze is a delight that shouldn’t be missed! Plus, they make wonderful cut flowers.

So, if you like low-maintenance plants that deliver big-time results, join us now for a look at how to grow and care for grape hyacinth.

What Is Grape Hyacinth?

Native to northern Africa, Eurasia, and the Mediterranean basin, Muscari is a genus of perennial bulbs with approximately 40 different species.

A close up of blue grape hyacinth flowers with white edging, on long stems with foliage in soft focus in the background.

Previously classified in the lily (Liliaceae) clan, muscari species now belong to the asparagus family, Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae.

Muscari bulbs are typically hardy in USDA Hardiness Zones 3-9 or 4-8, depending on the species.

Plants produce one to three flower spikes in early to mid-spring, typically growing six to 12 inches tall.

Flower racemes consist of tightly packed, urn-shaped florets that resemble a small cluster of grapes, hence their descriptive common name.

The fused tepals form a cinched, hoop-like opening, often with a thin white band around the mouth.

A vertical close up picture of blue grape hyacinth flowers with upright stalks on a soft focus background.

As florets open, tiny white stamen may peek out from the hoop opening.

Flowers bloom in shades of blue, purple, white, and yellow – with pale pink being a recent introduction. And some species have two-tone colors with a dark bottom and lighter top.

Although they share a common name with fragrant hyacinths, they do not belong to the same genus.

A close up of purple grape hyacinth flowers growing on long stems with upright foliage on a soft focus background.

Foliage is typically narrow with an arching or slightly floppy habit, and some species send up six to eight leaves in fall.

After flowering, leaves yellow and then die back in late spring, and plants go dormant for summer.

The flowers have a light, carnation-like or slightly fruity fragrance and open from the bottom up the raceme, revealing a small fringe of tepals as florets open and mature.

Cultivation and History

The name “muscari” comes from ancient Greek and means musk, thought to refer to its scent.

A top down close up of a clump of grape hyacinth plants with blue flowers and bright green upright foliage growing between two rocks with soil in soft focus in the background.

In the 14th century, bulbs traveled into Europe – north from Spain and west from the Caucasus – and have been commercially cultivated since the mid-1500s.

But archaeological evidence shows they’ve been appreciated for much longer, as far back as 50,000 years ago.

In northern Iraq, pollen analysis from a Neanderthal burial cave revealed that one man was laid to rest on a bed of branches and colorful flowers, among them grape hyacinth.

Today, grape hyacinth is renowned as the star of the stunning “blue river” at Keukenhof, a world-famous botanical garden located in Holland.

A river of blue grape hyacinth plants, surrounded by red and yellow spring flowers and large shrubs, in a woodland in the Netherlands in bright sunshine.
A “river” of blue grape hyacinths with tulips and daffodils at Keukenhof Gardens, Lisse, South Holland, Netherlands.

The flowers, buds, and bulbs of some species are also featured in Mediterranean cuisine, particularly in Crete and southern Italy.

The bulbs of M. comosum are boiled several times to remove bitterness, pickled, then preserved in oil and eaten as an onion substitute. And the flowers and buds of M. botryoides are pickled in vinegar for their sweet, nut-like flavor.

Propagation

Muscari readily naturalize and reproduce quickly in the garden by bulb offsets and self-seeding.

However, it can take a minimum of four years for seed-started plants to set flowers. And because bulbs multiply and flower readily, offsets are the preferred propagation method.

From Seed

In summer, remove the dried seed pods to harvest seeds.

A close up of the seed pods of a Muscari plant on a soft focus background.

Place seeds on top of a damp paper towel and place the paper towel inside a loosely sealed plastic bag.

Place the bag in the refrigerator for up to 3 months to germinate. Muscari seeds require cold stratification (cold and moist conditions) to break seed dormancy.

Seeds will begin to sprout in the fridge in approximately 8 to 12 weeks.

Plant out into trays of sterile garden mix and transplant into the garden after the risk of frost has passed in spring.

From Bulbs

Plant bulbs in fall or spring in large groups of 25 or more.

Generous groupings of these petite flowers are easier to see, and offer a bold visual impact. They can look sparse when planted singly or in small groups, due to their small size.

A border beside a walkway containing blue grape hyacinth flowers on upright stems, with red and yellow flowers in the background in bright sunshine.

Amend your planting soil with 1/3 organic matter such as aged compost or manure, and 1/3 sand or fine pebble grit to improve drainage if needed.

Mix in a small amount of bone meal when planting to assist root formation.

Plant bulbs with the flat end down, 1 to 2 inches deep and spaced 1 to 2 inches apart, then backfill with soil, gently firming in place.

Water lightly to settle the bulbs.

By Bulb Offset

Clumps of muscari can be divided in very early spring before plant growth emerges, or in early fall when leaves have died back and plants are dormant.

Dig up plant clusters and gently separate offshoots from the larger bulbs.

A close up of a blue plate with Muscari bulbs of various sizes separated into three clumps, set on a wooden table with a Japanese garden knife in the background.
Photo by Lorna Kring.

Choose the healthiest and largest bulbs and replant where desired. Mid-sized bulbs can be planted in clusters to start new clumps of flowers.

The remaining small bulbs can be tossed on bare spots, rocky slopes, or in grasses and meadows where they can grow freely.

However, use caution when tossing the discards and remember, they multiply quickly and profusely. Avoid disposing of any where you don’t want them, like in your compost bin!

How to Grow

Grape hyacinth prefers a full to partial sun location.

They like well-draining soil that’s gritty or sandy in texture, with a slightly acidic to neutral pH, and lean fertility. If you’re not sure what the composition of your soil might be, you can do a soil test.

Clumps of Muscari plants growing in a border with blue flowers and green foliage in bright sunshine fading to soft focus in the background.

And please ensure bulbs won’t be sitting in water in winter, which can cause bulb rot.

After flowering, they require no feeding and little watering. Leaves die back and wither after setting seeds, and plants go dormant in the summer.

Many species send up foliage in the fall, but flowers don’t appear until the following spring.

A close up of purple grape hyacinth flowers growing in the garden on upright stems surrounded by foliage fading to soft focus in the background.

After planting, muscari are self-sufficient in naturalized settings.

In beds and containers, lift and divide clumps every 3 to 4 years, or as needed. This prevents crowding and rejuvenates bulb clusters.

To divide, use a spade to loosen soil around the outside edges of clumps, then gently flip the clump upside down.

A close up of a gardener wearing blue gloves, holding a garden trowel, digging a hole to plant a clump of grape hyacinth bulbs with upright stems and blue flowers.

Gently pull the bulbs apart and replant the largest ones.

Use midsized offsets to start new clusters, and dispose of the smallest specimens, or scatter them around the planting area as you wish.

For container growth, use a well-draining soil amended as described above, and ensure containers have adequate drainage to prevent bulbs from sitting in water.

A close up of a ceramic pot containing a small Muscari plant with flower stalks pushing through the dark rich soil with foliage surrounding them, on a soft focus background.
Photo by Lorna Kring.

Pack bulbs slightly closer than you would when planting in the ground. A pot that’s 6 inches in diameter and 6 inches deep can hold 8-12 bulbs.

Forcing Indoor Bulbs

Forcing muscari to bloom indoors is easy, and you’ll love the color and fragrance they add to a winter window.

A vertical picture of grape hyacinth flowers growing in pots, to the right of the frame is a wicker pot, and to the left a purple rectangular planter, with a wicker basket in the background, set on a wooden surface.

In late summer or early fall, purchase bulbs or dig some up from the garden.

To enjoy a bloom period of January through March, chill successive pots of bulbs beginning in September and continue through October.

Then chill pots for a period for 10 to 12 weeks at temperatures of 35 to 48°F.

Use moist, sterile potting mix and replace 1/4 of the soil with coarse sand to aid drainage. Ensure pots are free draining as well.

Space bulbs closely, about 1/2 to 1 inch apart, in containers that measure 6 to 8 inches deep and 6 to 8 inches in diameter.

Plant 12-15 bulbs closely together, 1 to 2 inches deep, with pointed tips facing upward.

Chill in a cool, dark location like an unheated cellar or garage, cold frame, or spare refrigerator.

Water bulbs lightly every week, just enough to keep the soil lightly moist but not wet.

After their chill period, or when roots begin to emerge from pot bottoms, move pots to a brightly lit, cool spot to encourage flowers. A maximum daytime temperature of 65 degrees F is ideal.

A close up of dark purple grape hyacinth flowers growing in the bright sunshine amongst green foliage fading to soft focus in the background.

Keep the soil moist until plants finish flowering. When leaves start to die back, move pots outside, or transplant bulbs into the garden for summer dormancy.

Plant up several pots at once, or stagger your timing and plant and chill pots of bulbs at one-week intervals to enjoy a longer display time.

Growing Tips

Care for these charming little flowers is basic, and the following tips will ensure they enjoy the best conditions.

  • Excellent drainage is a must. These bulbs don’t fare well if allowed to sit in water over winter.
  • Overly rich soil produces more foliage and less flowers, and muscari prefer lean soil. Adding compost when planting in-ground is all they require for feeding.
  • Container plants will benefit from a light feeding of a granular 5-10-5 fertilizer lightly scratched into the soil before blooming. Allow spring rains to wash nutrients toward the roots.
  • Keep the soil moist in spring and reduce watering after plants finish flowering.

After-Bloom Care and Maintenance

Wonderfully low maintenance, muscari bulbs require little care.

Foliage withers and dies back in late spring. Clean up dead leaves with a small hand rake once they’ve dried and turned brown.

These bulbs require no supplemental feeding in beds, but container plants appreciate a light feeding of a granular 5-10-5 fertilizer in late winter before blooming.

Cultivars to Select

There are plenty of sweet grape hyacinth choices available to home gardeners. Shop at your local garden center, bulb specialty houses, or online.

Here are a few of our favorites:

Dark Eyes

‘Dark Eyes’ is a hybrid cross between M. aucheri, M. neglectum, and M. pallens, and is prized for its densely packed, uniform flowers of deep sapphire blue and a light, sweet fragrance.

A border in the garden with daffodils and large clumps of the 'Dark Eyes' variety of Muscari flowers.

‘Dark Eyes’

Deer resistant, they thrive in Zones 4-8 in full or part sun, and they are tolerant of most types of soil. ‘Dark Eyes’ grows to a height of 4-8 inches with a spread of 3 inches.

Bags of 15 bulbs are available at Burpee.

Delft Blue Mix

‘Delft Blue Mix’ deftly displays the large flower heads and full spectrum of colors of M. armeniacum in bright shades of baby blue, cobalt, white, and two-tones.

A close up of a clump of Muscari flowers in various colors ranging from white to deep purple on a soft focus background.

‘Delft Blue Mix’

Reaching heights of up to 8 inches, they’ll do well in sun to partial shade in Zones 3-8.

Eden Brothers carries bags of 25, 50, and 100 bulbs.

White Magic

‘White Magic’ is an M. aucheri cultivar that features pure white flowers on tall, 12-inch stems and a light, fruity fragrance.

A close up of the 'White Magic' variety of Muscari flowers, with long stalks pushing above upright foliage with white flowers clustered at the top.

‘White Magic’

This type is suitable for growing in Zones 3-8.

Eden Brothers offers bags of bulbs in three different quantities.

Mixed Colors

A variety pack of “mixed colors” offers a beautiful cross selection including blue, pink, purple, and white M. armeniacum, pale blue M. azureum, yellow M. macrocarpum, dark teal M. paradoxum, and frothy pink M. plumosum.

A collage picture of different colored grape hyacinth flowers, from the top left: purple, yellow, light purple, white, purple with white edging, blue with white edging, blue-green, pale purple, pale blue, and pink.

Mixed Colors

Five different species as well as five different cultivars are included in this bulb collection – ‘Album,’ ‘Bellevalia,’ the above-described ‘Dark Eyes,’ ‘Golden Fragrance,’ and ‘Pink Sunrise.’

They are packaged individually and labeled, allowing you to plan your color palette and layout accordingly, or you could choose to mix the varieties for a more random kaleidoscope of color when planting.

Home Depot offers 100 “mixed color” bulbs in a collectors’ package from Van Zyverden Plants & Garden Flowers.

Want More Choices?

Be sure to check out our 9 of the Best Grape Hyacinth Varieties for Your Garden for more selections.

Managing Pests and Disease

Grape hyacinth has few common problems.

Aphids and spider mites are the most common pests, though infestations are rare. Remove insect pests with a strong spray of water from the garden hose.

Yellow mosaic virus can also make an appearance.

Typically spread by insects like aphids, symptoms can include yellow or light green patterns on the leaves and growth suppression.

Bulbs infected with viral disease should be dug out and destroyed to prevent spreading the infection.

Best Garden Uses

These highly versatile bulbs are naturally found in woodlands and meadows, making them ideal for any naturalized setting.

A mixed planting of grape hyacinth in the garden amongst other colorful spring bulbs in bright sunshine with a group of people in soft focus in the background.

They’re also commonly cultivated in beds, borders, containers, lawns, and rockeries, under deciduous trees, and around shrubs.

Muscari provides spectacular drifts of color when mass planted and mixes well with other early flowering bulbs like anemones, daffodils, and tulips.

Bulbs can be forced indoors for winter blooms, and taller varieties make lovely cut flowers as well.

Quick Reference Growing Guide

Plant Type: Flowering bulb Flower / Foliage Color: Blue, pink, purple, white, yellow; green
Native To: North Africa, Eurasia, Mediterranean Maintenance: Low
Hardiness (USDA Zone): 3-9 for M. botryoides, 4-8 for most other species Tolerance: Deer, rabbit, rodents
Bloom Time / Season: Early to mid-spring Soil Type: Average fertility
Exposure: Full to partial sun Soil pH: 6.1-7.5
Time To Maturity: Up to 4 years from seed, 2 years from bulb offset Soil Drainage: Well-draining
Spacing: 1-2 inches Companion Planting: Other spring bulbs
Planting Depth: 2-3 inches Uses: Beds, borders, containers, naturalized settings
Height: 6-12 inches Family: Asparagaceae
Spread: 4-8 inches Subfamily: Scilloideae
Water Needs: Moderate in spring, low in summer Genus: Muscari
Attracts: Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators Species: Approximately 40 species including aucheri, armeniacum, azureum, botryoides, comosum, macrocarpum, neglectum, pallens, paradoxum, plumosum
Pests & Diseases: Aphids, spider mites; yellow mosaic virus

Plant and Forget? Perfect!

Easy to grow, low maintenance, and hardy, these cheery flowers are perfect for plant-and-forget convenience.

Completely reliable, they never fail to add a gorgeous pop of color to the early spring garden. And you’ll love the way clumps multiply, adding more blooms every year!

A garden scene with plantings of blue grape hyacinth flowers in clumps with upright stems and bright green foliage, in light sunshine, with rocks and other flowers in soft focus in the background.

Do you folks have a favorite Muscari species or cultivar to recommend? Drop us a line in the comments below.

And be sure to check out some of our other spring flower favorites – here are a few that might interest you:

Photos by Lorna Kring © Ask the Experts, LLC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. See our TOS for more details. Product photos via Burpee, Eden Brothers, and Home Depot. Originally published on February 15, 2020. Last updated: July 9, 2020 at 13:00 pm. Uncredited photos: Shutterstock. With additional writing and editing by Allison Sidhu.

About Lorna Kring

A writer, artist, and entrepreneur, Lorna is also a long-time gardener who got hooked on organic and natural gardening methods at an early age. These days, her vegetable garden is smaller to make room for decorative landscapes filled with color, fragrance, art, and hidden treasures. Cultivating and designing the ideal garden spot is one of her favorite activities – especially for gathering with family and friends for good times and good food (straight from the garden, of course)!

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Patti Uecker
Patti Uecker (@guest_7112)
1 month ago

Just transplanted grape hyacinths from son’s yard as they are extending their patio and will be digging up the flower bed. To my surprise, I found two clumps laying over to discover bulbs have been eaten. Was it the chipmunks, squirrels, or toad in the yard?

Barbara
Barbara (@guest_8656)
5 days ago

I just harvested seeds from the dried seed pods. It’s July. When and how can I plant them in ground?

Allison Sidhu
Allison Sidhu (@allison-schultz)
Admin
Noble Member
Reply to  Barbara
4 days ago

That’s great, Barbara! See the section of the article above on propagating grape hyacinths from seed – collected seeds can be stored in a cool, dry, dark place before cold stratifying as we’ve described for three months, and then seedlings can be grown indoors. Seedlings can be hardened off and transplanted out into the garden after the risk of frost has passed in your area in the spring. Seeds could be sown directly in the ground, but it’s easier to control temperature/moisture levels and give them a good start by cold stratifying in the fridge and then planting the sprouted… Read more »